why do patients with kidney disease suffer from anemia
Anemia is a condition that can occur on its own or as a symptom of many other serious medical issues. It involves having fewer red blood cells than normal in the body, which is problematic because red blood cells carry oxygen to organs and tissues so they can utilize energy and function properly. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients commonly experience anemia, and their anemia often gets worse as CKD progresses. It is very common for individuals who have a full loss of kidney function or kidney failure to be diagnosed with anemia. This article will explore the connection between anemia and chronic kidney disease to help patients find the proper diagnosis and treatment for their symptoms. Kidneys are bean-shaped organs that are about the size of oneБs fist. They are located on both sides of the spine, below the rib cage, and their job is to filter blood to produce urine. From the kidneys, urine flows to the bladder through the ureters, where urine is stored until a signal is sent to the brain telling it to use the restroom. Kidneys are vital to human functioning because they prevent the build-up of bodily waste and excess fluid, as well as keeping electrolyte levels stable. The kidneys also produce hormones that make red blood cells, strengthen bones, and regulate blood pressure.
In the human body, the kidneys produce erythropoietin (EPO), which is a hormone that enables bone marrow to create red blood cells. But when an individual has severe kidney dysfunction, this hormone is not produced and red blood cells are not created. People with kidney disease have low EPO levels, which cause red blood cell counts to drop and anemia to occur. People who have kidney disease may also develop anemia because of losing blood during hemodialysis. These individuals may also not be getting key nutrients, like iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12, through meals that their bodies need. A kidney disease patient who is experiencing weakness, fatigue, or headaches may be exhibiting signs of anemia. Other anemia symptoms to watch out for include concentration problems, dizziness, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Due to the onset of anemia, it is possible for kidney disease patients to develop an irregular heartbeat during exercise, an unnatural enlargement of the heart muscles, or even heart failure. Blood tests are typically necessary to diagnose anemia, along with a physical exam and review of oneБs full medical history.
A complete blood count measures the number of blood cells in the body. But it may also be necessary to check an individualБs ferritin level to determine the amount of iron that the body is storing, as well as the transferrin saturation score to see how much iron is available to make red blood cells. High-potency iron supplements like are commonly used to treat anemia in kidney disease patients in order to boost their iron levels and improve hemoglobin levels. In severe cases, supplemental iron may be more effective when administered intravenously. To learn more about why iron can help patients with treat kidney disease, read the article, Б. Б
Anaemia is a common condition in kidney disease and other conditions where there are not enough blood cells or not enough haemoglobin to carry oxygen around the body. Aneamia also has a variety of other causes. Normal healthy blood is vital for health and well being it carries cells and nutrients around our body, helping us to feel well and energetic. Red blood cells are doughnut-shaped cells produced in the bone marrow. They contain haemoglobin (Hb), which carries oxygen in the blood. White blood cells (wbc s) help to fight infection also called Leucocytes.
Platelets A Blood count (FBC or CBC) is a blood test that shows the amount of haemoglobin, red cells, white cells and platelets in blood. Haemoglobin is responsible for the red colour of blood. It is carried in red blood cells. It is a combination of an iron-containing molecule haem and the protein globin. Anaemia is a common condition where there are not enough red blood cells, or not enough haemoglobin in the red blood cells to carry the usual amount of oxygen around the body. It can occur in many diseases, but common causes are: Shortage of things needed to make blood: most commonly iron, but also folic acid and vitamin B12 In pregnancy you need to make more blood so need more iron etc. Diseases affecting the bone marrow, where blood is made There are many other causes for instance, in some diseases, blood cells are destroyed too fast. Normal kidneys secrete a hormone known as Erythropoetin (EPO). This controls the production of red blood cells. In severe kidney disease, anaemia can occur because of a shortage of erythropoetin. What are the symptoms of anaemia? All of these can have other explanations apart from anaemia. Anaemia can occur in people at the bottom end of stage 3 kidney disease but usually only becomes a big problem at stages 4 or 5 shortage of erythropoietin is often important but other causes can contribute.
Extra iron and folic acid are commonly needed. Iron is often low in patients with kidney disease, and extra iron is needed if extra blood cells are to be made to improve the anaemia. Blood transfusion used to be the only really effective treatment for renal anaemia, but had a number of problems: You may become 'immune' to blood cells from blood transfusions, so that: Since 1985 EPO has been a very successful treatment for renal anaemia. It needs to be given by injections every few days to weeks. It replaces the EPO that healthy kidneys would be producing. Side effects are rare but some are important: High blood pressure, especially if the haemoglobin (Hb) level rises rapidly, or becomes too high Very rarely an immune reaction to EPO treatment causes pure red cell aplasia, a very severe anaemia that needs blood transfusions to treat it The best level for Hb in kidney patients is probably low-normal or a little bit lower than normal. This relieves the symptoms of anaemia without causing complications. from the pages of Edren. org Living with kidney disease -
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