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why is slate used for roof tiles

Slate can be made into roofing slates, a type of, or more specifically a type of, which are installed by a. Slate has two lines of breakability cleavage and grain which make it possible to split the stone into thin sheets. When broken, slate retains a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat and easy to stack. A "slate boom" occurred in Europe from the 1870s until the first world war, allowed by the use of the steam engine in manufacturing slate tiles and improvements in road and waterway transportation systems. Slate is particularly suitable as a roofing material as it has an extremely low water absorption index of less than 0. 4%, making the material waterproof. In fact, this natural slate, which requires only minimal processing, has the lowest
of all roofing materials. Natural slate is used by building professionals as a result of its beauty and durability. Slate is incredibly durable and can last several hundred years, often with little or no maintenance. Its low water absorption makes it very resistant to frost damage and breakage due to freezing. Natural slate is also fire resistant and energy efficient. Slate roof tiles are usually fixed (fastened) either with nails, or with hooks as is common with Spanish slate. In the UK, fixing is typically with double nails onto timber battens (England and Wales) or nailed directly onto timber sarking boards (Scotland and Northern Ireland).

Nails were traditionally of copper, although there are modern alloy and stainless steel alternatives. Both these methods, if used properly, provide a long-lasting weathertight roof with a lifespan of around 80100 years. Slate roofs are still used today. Hook fixing is particularly suitable in regions subject to severe weather conditions, since there is greater resistance to wind uplift, as the lower edge of the slate is secured. The metal hooks are, however, visible and may be unsuitable for historic properties. Slate tiles are often used for interior and exterior flooring, stairs, walkways and wall cladding. Tiles are installed and set on mortar and grouted along the edges. Chemical sealants are often used on tiles to improve durability and appearance, increase stain resistance, reduce, and increase or reduce surface smoothness. Tiles are often sold gauged, meaning that the back surface is ground for ease of installation. Slate flooring can be slippery when used in external locations subject to rain. Slate tiles were used in 19th century UK building construction (apart from roofs) and in slate quarrying areas such as and, there are still many buildings wholly constructed of slate.

Slates can also be set into walls to provide a rudimentary. Small offcuts are used as to level floor joists. In areas where slate is plentiful it is also used in pieces of various sizes for building walls and hedges, sometimes combined with other kinds of stone. In modern homes slate is often used as table coasters. Because it is a good and, it was used to construct early-20th-century and controls for large. Fine slate can also be used as a to hone knives. Due to its thermal stability and chemical inertness, slate has been used for laboratory bench tops and for tops. In 18th- and 19th-century schools, slate was extensively used for and individual, for which slate or chalk pencils were used. In areas where it is available, high-quality slate is used for and commemorative tablets. In some cases slate was used by the ancient to fashion. Slate was traditional material of choice for black stones in Japan. It is now considered to be a luxury. The multi-layered slate stone is formed from the metamorphosis of shale (a soft claystone). When shale is subjected to high temperatures and pressure, it flattens out to form slate. The mineral composition of slate includes pyrite, chlorite, biotite, muscovite and quartz. It also contains (but in less frequency) magnetite, zircon, feldspar and tourmaline.

Slate is resistant to stains, acid spills and fire. Commercially available slate is in the form of Vermont slate tiles, Indian slate and Chinese slate. Slate rock is used in the construction industry to make roofing shingles and coverings. Slate is preferred over artificial covering materials for its unique physical and chemical properties, moisture resistance, wind resistance, good insulating capability and cold/chill resistance. Slate roofs can last hundreds of years. An example is the Westminster Hall in London, England, that was finished with a slate roof in the Thirteenth Century; the same roof stands as of April, 2010. Slate is ecologically sound and its use does not harm the environment. There are various types of slate roof coverings, including triple, double, scales, French, triple rounded without corners and Abbadini. Slate is used for external flooring, internal flooring and cladding. Slate floors are commonly laid in outdoor porches, basements, bathrooms and kitchens. Internal slate floors are durable, versatile and elegant. They allow homeowners and interior decorators to create unique, one-of-a-kind environments. Internal slate floors are available in a wide range of honed finished tiles, natural patterns (natural cleft) and colors, including green, black, gray, red and purple в accenting a space with unmatched style.

Slate floors are durable, nonporous, and require little maintenance. External slate flooring can be made with either random slate or slate tiles. Random slate comes in various shapes, such as trapezoids and parallelograms and offers a more natural look. Tiles make for a more finished-looking space. Slate rock is used in various residential and commercial landscaping projects for its weather-resistant and pollution-resistant properties. It is used to pave paths, surround swimming pools, cover outer walls, make risers and treads on stairs, and even for patios. Slate stone is chiseled to make fountains, used in both traditional and contemporary styles. The smooth playing surface of a billiard table is made from quarried slate. Some tables are made from a single slab of slate, while others are made from multiple pieces of billiard slate. According to the Billiard Congress of America, a three-piece slate with a thickness of one inch is best suited for tournament billiard play. The thickness of slate used for regular billiard tables lies between 3/4 of an inch to an inch. High-quality billiard slate is elastic, moisture absorbent and fine grained.

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