why is the united kingdom called the united kingdom

Written history began in Britain when writing was brought to Britain by the. Rome ruled in Britain from 44AD to 410AD, but they only ruled England and Wales. The Romans never ruled Scotland north of the Clyde-Forth valley, or Ireland; their northern boundary varied from time to time, and was marked for a while at. After the Romans, two waves of
came to Britain. The first were tribes: the, and. , the language, is a development from, and is a Germanic language. The second were the. After a long period when was split into various kingdoms, it was made into one country by vthelstan (. England and Wales were unified by (Longshanks) by force in the 13th century. Union with Scotland took much longer; there were hundreds of years of conflicts between both parts of Britain. This union between England and Scotland in 1707 formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged Scotland and England into one country. In 1603, when died, her closest relative was. He became king of England as well as king of Scotland. In 1707, the Scottish and English Parliaments agreed the Treaty of Union, which joined the two countries into one country called The Kingdom of Great Britain under Queen. By 1800, both Scotland and England had already independently had much influence over since 1200. In that year laws were passed in Great Britain and Ireland to merge the two states. The new country was called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

In 1922 much of Ireland became independent as the (now called ) from the United Kingdom. However, six northern counties (called ) continue to be part of the United Kingdom. The country was renamed The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The British people are represented by members of, not ruled by monarchs. Parliament started in 1994 as an advisory body for the monarch, but by the 20th century it had gained enough power to successfully defeat, in the. became Lord Protector. Though the monarchy was restored after his death, the Crown slowly became the secondary power, and Parliament the first. Members of Parliament (called MPs) were elected, but until the early twentieth century, only men who owned property could vote. In the nineteenth century, more people were given (the right to vote), but even so, by 1900, women could not vote, and only 40% of men were rich enough to vote. But in 1928, all adults, male and female, got the vote: this is called universal suffrage. Parliament is in London, but it has power over the whole of the UK. Today, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland each have their own seats of local government but they have more limited powers; Scotland has the self named Scottish Parliament. The Welsh have an assembly and the Northern Irish have Stormount. There isn't an individual English parliament representing the views of only English regions.

There are also parliaments in the and the, which are islands that are partly controlled by the UK, and partly independent. The members of Parliament belong to : the biggest parties are the Conservative Party, Labour Party, the Scottish National Party and the Liberal Democrats. Members of the same party agree to act and vote more or less together. A party with more than half the seats (a majority) forms the government; the leader of the party becomes the, who then appoints other ministers. Because the government has a majority in Parliament, it can normally control what laws are passed. Numbers beginning 01 or 02 are normal phone numbers for home and business telephone lines. These numbers are always split into two parts: The area code comes first, and is linked to a specific part of the country. For example, the 020 area code is for London and the 0121 code is for Birmingham. When calling between two phones that have the same area code, this part is optional. It is sometimes shown inside brackets to make this clear. The area code can be two to five digits long. The second part, usually separated from the code by a space, is known as the 'local number' or 'subscriber number'. It is normally 6, 7 or 8 digits long but can sometimes be only 4 or 5 digits long. This is always unique within an area code. For example, only one person in Manchester could have the number 9460018. Examples: (020) 7946 0018, (0117) 504 1102, (01632) 402881, (01647) 61321, (015394) 52749, (016977) 3789.

Numbers beginning with 03 are for businesses, government and other organisations that need a number not linked to any single part of the country. The law says they must always cost the same to call as normal 01 and 02 phone numbers from fixed telephones and from mobiles and be included in all call package bundles. 056 numbers are used for internet phone services and let people call an internet phone from a normal telephone. Internet phones can also use other types of numbers 0500 numbers are free to call from fixed telephones. All other numbers beginning 07 are for mobile phones. These are numbers that are charged at a different price to normal phone calls. 0800 and 0808 numbers are free to call from fixed telephones. Except for a few specific charity and helpline numbers, calls from mobile phones are not free. Mobile providers add an Access Charge of 20 to 40 pence per minute when calling 08 numbers. The total price paid can be up to 45 pence per minute and 08 numbers are never included within call packages. These are more expensive revenue-share numbers with a Service Charge of up to S1. 50 per minute. These numbers are used to pay for services, for recorded information, for dating and for voting in competitions. The caller also pays an Access Charge to their own phone network and this varies from network to network.

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