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why is satan portrayed as a goat

In December 1851,
organized a coup that would end the Second Republic and give rise to the Second Empire. Similar to many other socialists at the time, Constant saw the emperor as the defender of the people and the restorer of public order. In the Moniteur parisien of 1852, Constant praised the new government's actions as "veritably socialist," but he soon became disillusioned with the rigid dictatorship and was eventually imprisoned in 1855 for publishing a polemical chanson against the Emperor. What had changed, however, was Constant's attitude towards "the people. " As early as in La Fte-Dieu and Le livre des larmes from 1845, he had been skeptical of the uneducated people's ability to emancipate themselves. Similar to the, he had adopted the theocratical ideas of Joseph de Maistre in order to call for the establishment of a "spiritual authority" led by an lite class of priests. After the disaster of 1849, he was completely convinced that the "masses" were not able to establish a harmonious order and needed instruction (a concept similar to other socialist doctrines such as the "revolution from above", the Avantgarde, or the Partei neuen Typs. [ Constant's activities reflect the socialist struggle to come to terms both with the failure of 1848 and the tough repressions by the new government.

He participated on the socialist Revue philosophique et religieuse, founded by his old friend Fauvety, wherein he propagated his "Kabbalistic" ideas, for the first time in public, in 1855-1856 (notably using his civil name). The debates in the Revue do not only show the tensions between the old "Romantic Socialism" of the Saint-Simonians and Fourierists, they also demonstrate how natural it was for a socialist writer to discuss topics like magic, the Kabbalah, or the occult sciences in a socialist journal. It has been shown that Constant developed his ideas about magic in a specific milieu that was marked by the confluence of socialist and magnetistic ideas. Influential authors included Henri Delaage (18251882) and, who were, to different extents, propagating magnetistic, magical, and kabbalistic ideas as the foundation of a superior form of socialism. Lvi began to write Histoire de la magie in 1860. The following year, in 1861, he published a sequel to Dogme et rituel, La clef des grands mystres ("The Key to the Great Mysteries").

In 1861 Lvi revisited London. Further magical works by Lvi include Fables et symboles ("Stories and Images"), 1862, Le sorcier de Meudon ("The Wizard of Meudon", an extended edition of two novels originally published in 1847) 1861, and La science des esprits ("The Science of Spirits"), 1865. In 1868, he wrote Le grand arcane, ou l'occultisme Dvoil ("The Great Secret, or Occultism Unveiled"); this, however, was only published posthumously in 1898. [ Constant resumed the use of openly socialist language after the government had loosened the restrictions against socialist doctrines in 1859. From La clef on, he extensively cited his radical writings, even his infamous Bible de la libert. He continued to develop his idea of an lite of initiates that would lead the people to its final emancipation. In several passages he explicitly identified socialism, Catholicism, and occultism. The magic propagated by yliphas Lvi became a great success, especially after his death. That was popular on both sides of the Atlantic from the 1850s contributed to this success. His magical teachings were free from obvious fanaticisms, even if they remained rather murky; he had nothing to sell, and did not pretend to be the initiate of some ancient or fictitious.

He incorporated the cards into his magical system, and as a result the Tarot has been an important part of the of Western magicians. He had a deep impact on the magic of the and later on the ex-Golden Dawn member. He was also the first to declare that a or five-pointed star with one point down and two points up represents evil, while a pentagram with one point up and two points down represents good. It was largely through the occultists inspired by him that Lvi is remembered as one of the key founders of the 20th-century revival of magic. [ You are confusing a couple different things here. Medieval depictions of the devil were animal-like simply as a stylistic choice - there are no descriptions of the devil in the bible, so painters then would draw from folklore instead. Much later in the 19th century, there was a sudden interest in the Knights Templar, who had been accused of worshipping pagan gods, along with other spurious charges. Myths of them also being devil worshippers became confabulated, together with myths of them being connected to Freemasonry.

The Catholic Church strongly opposed Freemasonry, and myths tying them together (perpetuated by some people, as in the ) strengthened the association between the mythical Knoghts Templar idols (especially ) and the Christian devil, as did the subsequent rise of neopaganism (which adopted these images to deliberately rebel against the church) and the Church of Satan. But the identification of the devil with the pagan gods was never a deliberate attempt by the Catholic Church. The existing animalistic image combined with popular myths about the Knights Templar lead to the popular Baphomet-like depiction of him at least 50 years before the Church started denouncing the myths and people associated with them, and there are goat-like depictions of the devil nearly 500 years before that. So you have almost got it backwards - the image was adopted by opponents of the church, indirectly and then directly, and the popular assessment of this conflict, along with a combination of other myths that were popular at the time, lead to the Baphomet-based depiction of the devil that is popular today.

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