why was king edward called the confessor

Edward the was the first Anglo-Saxon and the only king of England to be canonised, but he was part of a tradition of (uncanonised) English royal saints, such as, a daughter of, a daughter of, and the boy-king. With his proneness to fits of rage and his love of hunting, Edward the Confessor is regarded by most historians as an unlikely saint, and his canonisation as political, although some argue that his cult started so early that it must have had something credible to build on. Edward displayed a worldly attitude in his church appointments. When he appointed Robert of Jumiges as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1051, he chose the leading craftsman
to replace Robert as. Robert refused to consecrate him, saying that the pope had forbidden it, but Spearhafoc occupied the bishopric for several months with Edward's support. After the Godwins fled the country, Edward expelled Spearhafoc, who fled with a large store of gold and gems which he had been given to make Edward a crown. Stigand was the first archbishop of Canterbury not to be a monk in almost a hundred years, and he was said to have been excommunicated by several popes because he held Canterbury and Winchester in plurality. Several bishops sought consecration abroad because of the irregularity of Stigand's position. Edward usually preferred clerks to monks for the most important and richest bishoprics, and he probably accepted gifts from candidates for bishoprics and abbacies.

However, his appointments were generally respectable. When died without heirs in 1056, Edward seized lands which Odda had granted to and gave them to his Westminster foundation; the historian observes that "the Confessor did not in the 11th century have the saintly reputation which he later enjoyed, largely through the efforts of the Westminster monks themselves". After 1066 there was a subdued cult of Edward as a saint, possibly discouraged by the early Norman abbots of Westminster, which gradually increased in the early 12th century. , the prior of Westminster Abbey, then started to campaign for Edward's canonisation, aiming to increase the wealth and power of the Abbey. By 1138, he had converted the, the life of Edward commissioned by his widow, into a conventional saint's life. He seized on an ambiguous passage which might have meant that their marriage was chaste, perhaps to give the idea that Edith's childlessness was not her fault, to claim that Edward had been celibate. In 1139 Osbert went to Rome to petition for Edward's canonisation with the support of, but he lacked the full support of the English hierarchy and Stephen had quarrelled with the church, so postponed a decision, declaring that Osbert lacked sufficient testimonials of Edward's holiness. In 1159 there was a, and 's support helped to secure recognition of. In 1160 a new abbot of Westminster, Laurence, seized the opportunity to renew Edward's claim.

This time, it had the full support of the king and the English hierarchy, and a grateful pope issued the bull of canonisation on 7 February 1161, the result of a conjunction of the interests of Westminster Abbey, and He was called 'Confessor' as the name for someone who was believed to have lived a saintly life but was not a martyr. In the 1230s King became attached to the cult of Saint Edward, and he commissioned a new life by. Henry also constructed a grand new tomb for Edward in a rebuilt Westminster Abbey in 1269. He named his after him. Until about 1350, and Edward the Confessor were regarded as English national saints, but Edward III preferred the more war-like figure of St George, and in 1348 he established the with St George as its patron. It was located at, and its chapel of St Edward the Confessor was re-dedicated to St George, who was acclaimed in 1351 as patron of the English race. Edward was never a popular saint, but he was important to the Norman dynasty, which claimed to be the successor of Edward as the last legitimate Anglo-Saxon king. The shrine of Saint Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey remains where it was after the final translation of his body to a chapel east of the sanctuary on 13 October 1269 by Henry III. The day of his translation, 13 October (his first translation had also been on that date in 1163), is regarded as his feast day, and each October the Abbey holds a week of festivities and prayer in his honour.

For some time the Abbey had claimed that it possessed a set of coronation regalia that Edward had left for use in all future coronations. Following Edward's canonisation, these were regarded as, and thereafter they were used at all English coronations from the 13th century until the destruction of the regalia by in 1649. 13 October is an optional feast day for Edward the Confessor in the Catholic Church of England and Wales, and the 's designates it as a Lesser Festival. Edward is regarded as a of difficult marriages. a machine-translated version of the German article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide in the by providing an to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. to the. For more guidance, see.

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