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why was the roman army so powerful

Ancient Roman Empire included the three continents - Europe, Northern Africa
and the Middle East. The Roman empire was one of the powerful empires of the ancient world. Historians believe the earliest Roman settlements began in 753 BC. The glory of the Roman Empire was at its peak in 200 AD and the entire empire spanned over an area of 2. 5 million square miles. Many of the achievements of the ancient Romans are still in use today. Roman Army The Roman Empire was powerful, due to its strong military tactics. Roman military policies helped to expand the empire. The soldiers were trained in the latest tactics of war and were well equipped with the weapons of war. One of the responsibilities of the legion soldiers was to defend the Roman Empire and not conquest. As the Roman Empire grew, the army consisted of many men captured during the wars. Roman Art and Literature The official language of the Roman army and the government officials was Latin. Languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian and French were derived from Latin. The Romans developed the alphabets that are widely used in all the European languages, including English. They also developed Roman numerals, which are used today by many to highlight important document points. Ancient Romans gave importance to education and sent their children to schools. The ancient Romans were interested in creative arts. One such art form was "Mosaic" arts. In mosaic, art was created using small pieces of tiles, glasses or stones. These pieces were arranged on the smooth surface, such as a wall, to form a pattern. The pictures of Roman gods and goddesses, or the images of nature were the subject matter of these mosaic arts. Some mosaic art also depicted the day-to-day life of Roman families. The Romans were also known for their realistic sculptures. They sculpted life-like sculptures of Roman gods and goddesses and also of their rulers. Roman literature including drama and poetry became popular and is known as the Golden Age of Roman drama. Roman Architecture The ancient Romans were great architects and builders.

As they expanded their empire, they constructed many beautiful buildings and roads. Good roads connected each city of the Roman empire to Rome. The Romans were the first people to introduce the technology of road construction. They invented the technology for concrete, aqueducts, arches and roads. Ancient Rome was the capital of the Roman empire. When a new city was conquered, roads were made to connect it to Rome. Milestones were installed on the side of the roads, which told the traveler the distance to be to reach Rome. The streets of the ancient Roman cities were laid in a geometric pattern. Ancient Roman aqueducts were built to carry water from the springs or rivers to the public baths and fountains. These baths had a clever plumbing system to drain the dirty water. Aqueducts were built throughout the Roman empire and many of them are still used and in perfect condition. Arches were constructed to commemorate the victories of the Roman emperors. These were designed with stone carvings and statues. Some of the examples of the marvelous pieces of architecture are Circus Maximus, the Colosseum and the Pantheon. Roman Laws Roman laws applied to all Romans, regardless of his position in society. "A person is innocent until proven guilty" is a law invented by the Romans that many countries still use today. The Ancient Roman Empire was not only powerful but huge and lasted for almost 1,000 years. They were a highly disciplined fighting force. The short blade they wielded also was very punishing as well as deadly given the fighting formations used and tactics of the Roman Army. It was a devastating force until given unruly opponents that did not conduct combat conducive to Roman training. This is what set Hannibal apart from the many who lost to this force. From the time before Christ throughout the early imperial era the strength of the Roman army lay in its infantry. These were the legions. They were units of 5,000 men all of whom were well trained and equally well equipped. Each legion was broken up into centuries commanded by a junior officer calla centurion.

There were six centuries in a cohort and 10 cohorts in a legion. There weapons were mainly a short sword, a rectangular shield, body armour and a javelin. The discipline of the soldiers in battle gave rise to their success, allowing the generals to perform complex manoeuvres without loosing the shape or intent of the force. The legionaries were also in charge of building bridges, roads, forts and could conduct siege warfare as well as set-piece battles. Also accompanying the Legionaries were auxiliaries. These were non-Roman soldiers recruited from other parts of the empire. These operated in blocks of 500 or 1,000 under the command of a Roman officer. They might be specialist units like the Syrian archers fighting with their favoured weapons. Auxiliaries were paid less than legionaries and served longer but were granted Roman citizenship on discharge. The tactics employed by the Romans varied between battles and for what type of enemy it was. The turtle was a position where the soldiers all grouped up and used to hold the shields over there heads and some to the side while others at the outside held spears and weapons to protect each other from the enemy. The main use for this was to penetrate into forts and other enemy strong points. This was a log with a special hard head which could break down fortifications. It was made of a wooden structure which had skins put over it so that it protected the soldiers inside. There were ropes hanging down from the frame which held the ram. When it was used the soldiers pulled some ropes which had been tied to the ram so that when the people inside used it they could let go and then it used the momentum it gained from the ropes to smash down the wall. When they wanted to cross a river they took wood and built the bridges by putting poles into the ground and then attaching ropes to get it to be wide enough for it to be used to transport things over. They made them strong by taking rafts and attaching them together and then using trunks which they pushed into the river by dropping a metal weight which pushed it down into the ground.

When this was down they put beams across to strengthen the structure before finally putting the ropes logs over them to form a path over it. The Romans built temporary fortifications such as camps inside a wall. They had tents that were set up in a special way so that the command tent was in the centre of the other tents. It was all set up so that everything was in a certain position for an easier access. They had a pole which had all the insignias and the Roman eagle over it outside the command tent. There was a wooden wall around was built of trunks pushed into the ground so that it could be aligned in a line. They then put a walkway so that the centuries could look out of the fortifications. The outside had a moat and also there was a gate where there were sentries which let no one except the people which had to go in. There were also watch towers at the gates. When the roman army travelled they always had to build roads which were as straight as possible so that everyone could travel fast in case of need. They separated the empire into provinces so that it was easier to control as tribunes controlled different parts and collected which were then brought to Rome where they were put in the treasury before they used it in some parts of the empire. The strength did not only come from the training it also came from transportation. The roads were well built so it was easy to travel from one part of the empire to an other as was needed. They could get people from anywhere in the empire just by going along the roads so it gained more authority this way. If there was some unrest in a part of the empire they could quickly send reinforcements to that region so that they could keep it under control. The method of transport which was the fastest was horses as they could travel easily along the well built roads. Soldiers also travelled by boat or by walking but as the roads were straight even that was fast. This was a great feet in those days especially as they were nearly as advanced as civilisations are today but without power. Military Training

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