why was the european union set up
The European Union is set up with the aim of ending the frequent and bloody wars between neighbours, which culminated in the Second World War. As of 1950, the European Coal and Steel Community begins to unite European countries economically and politically in order to secure lasting peace. The six founding countries are Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The 1950s are dominated by a cold war between east and west. Protests in Hungary against the Communist regime are put down by Soviet tanks in 1956. In 1957, the Treaty of Rome creates the European Economic Community (EEC), or вCommon Marketв.
On the 1013 June 2004, the 25 member states participated in the largest trans-national election in history (with the second largest democratic electorate in the world). The result of the was a second victory for the group. It also saw the lowest of 45. 5%, the second time it had fallen below 50%. On 22 July 2004, was approved by the new Parliament as the next Commission President. However, his new team of 25 Commissioners faced a tougher road. With Parliament raising objections to a number of his candidates he was forced to withdraw his selection and try once more.
The Prodi Commission had to extend their mandate to the 22 November after the new line-up of commissioners was finally approved. A proposed was signed by from EU member states on 28 October 2004. The document was ratified in most member states, including two positive referendums. The referendums that were held in France and the Netherlands failed however, killing off the treaty. The European Council agreed that the constitution proposal would be abandoned, but most of its changes would be retained in an amending treaty. On 13 December 2007 the treaty was signed, containing for the more eurosceptic members and no state-like elements. The Lisbon treaty finally came into force on 1 December 2009. It created the post of and significantly expanded the post of. After much debate about what kind of person should be President, the European Council agreed on a low-key personality and chose while foreign policy-novice became High Representative. The again saw a victory for the, despite losing the who formed a smaller eurosceptic grouping with other anti-federalist right wing parties. Parliament's presidency was once again divided between the People's Party and the Socialists, with elected as the first from an ex-communist country.
Barroso was nominated by the Council for a second term and received backing from EPP who had declared him as their candidate before the elections. However, the Socialists and Greens led the opposition against him despite not agreeing on an opposing candidate. Parliament finally approved Barroso II, though once more several months behind schedule. In 2007, the with the accession of and on 1 January 2007. Also, in 2007 Slovenia adopted the euro, and Slovakia in 2009. However trouble developed with existing members as the entered its first recession in 2008. Members cooperated and the ECB intervened to help restore economic growth and the euro was seen as a safe haven, particularly by those outside such as Iceland. However, with the risk of a default in, eurozone leaders agreed to provisions for loans to member states who could not raise funds. Accusations that this was a u-turn on the EU treaties, which rule out any bail out of a euro member in order to encourage them to manage their finances better, were countered by the argument that these were loans, not grants, and that neither the EU nor other Member States assumed any liabilities for the debts of the aided countries.
With Greece struggling to restore its finances, other member states also at risk and the repercussions this would have on the rest of the eurozone economy, a loan mechanism was agreed. The crisis also spurred consensus for further economic integration and a range of proposals such as a or federal treasury. The European Union received the for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe. " The Nobel Committee stated that "that dreadful suffering in demonstrated the need for a new Europe [. ] today war between Germany and France is unthinkable. This shows how, through well-aimed efforts and by building up mutual confidence, historical enemies can become close partners. " The Nobel Committee's decision was subject to considerable criticism. On 1 July 2013, Croatia, and on 1 January 2014 the French territory of was added as an outermost region. On 23 June 2016, the citizens of the United Kingdom voted to in a referendum. The vote was in favour of leaving the EU by a margin of 51. 9% in favour to 48. 1% against.
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