why is a hypothesis called an educated guess
in Hempel's play a key role in the development and testing of hypotheses. Most formal hypotheses connect concepts by specifying the expected relationships between. When a set of hypotheses are grouped together they become a type of. When a
is complex and incorporates causality or explanation it is generally referred to as a theory. According to noted philosopher of science "An adequate empirical interpretation turns a theoretical system into a testable theory: The hypothesis whose constituent terms have been interpreted become capable of test by reference to observable phenomena. Frequently the interpreted hypothesis will be derivative hypotheses of the theory; but their confirmation or disconfirmation by empirical data will then immediately strengthen or weaken also the primitive hypotheses from which they were derived. " Hempel provides a useful metaphor that describes the relationship between a and the framework as it is observed and perhaps tested (interpreted framework). "The whole system floats, as it were, above the plane of observation and is anchored to it by rules of interpretation. These might be viewed as strings which are not part of the network but link certain points of the latter with specific places in the plane of observation. By virtue of those interpretative connections, the network can function as a scientific theory. " Hypotheses with concepts anchored in the plane of observation are ready to be tested.
In "actual scientific practice the process of framing a theoretical structure and of interpreting it are not always sharply separated, since the intended interpretation usually guides the construction of the theoretician. " It is, however, "possible and indeed desirable, for the purposes of logical clarification, to separate the two steps conceptually. " When a possible or similar relation between phenomena is investigated, such as whether a proposed remedy is effective in treating a disease, the hypothesis that a relation exists cannot be examined the same way one might examine a proposed new law of nature. In such an investigation, if the tested remedy shows no effect in a few cases, these do not necessarily falsify the hypothesis. Instead, are used to determine how likely it is that the overall effect would be observed if the hypothesized relation does not exist. If that likelihood is sufficiently small (e. g. , less than 1%), the existence of a relation may be assumed. Otherwise, any observed effect may be due to pure chance. In statistical hypothesis testing, two hypotheses are compared. These are called the and the. The null hypothesis is the hypothesis that states that there is no relation between the phenomena whose relation is under investigation, or at least not of the form given by the alternative hypothesis.
The alternative hypothesis, as the name suggests, is the alternative to the null hypothesis: it states that there is some kind of relation. The alternative hypothesis may take several forms, depending on the nature of the hypothesized relation; in particular, it can be two-sided (for example: there is some effect, in a yet unknown direction) or one-sided (the direction of the hypothesized relation, positive or negative, is fixed in advance). Conventional significance levels for testing hypotheses (acceptable probabilities of wrongly rejecting a true null hypothesis) are. 10,. 05, and. 01. Whether the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted, must be determined in advance, before the observations are collected or inspected. If these criteria are determined later, when the data to be tested are already known, the test is invalid. The above procedure is actually dependent on the number of the participants (units or ) that is included in the study. For instance, the sample size may be too small to reject a null hypothesis and, therefore, it is recommended to specify the sample size from the beginning. It is advisable to define a small, medium and large effect size for each of a number of important statistical tests which are used to test the hypotheses. C. Hypothesis To adequately answer this question, we must look at what each of these terms mean individually.
The term Б result Б refers to the actual answer or solution that occurs. Secondly, we have the word conclusion. Conclusion is the outcome of something. So relating it to a question: a conclusion is the very last part of something; when we get our answer. Next, we have the word hypothesis. A hypothesis is an Бeducated-guessБ. This is what we plan, or expect, to happen in a given situation. If it has to do with a question, then this is what the expected outcome, or answer, would be. Lastly, we have the term question. A question is just something that is asked to test the knowledge about a specific topic. I have also included the Merriam-Webster definitions for each of these words below. Looking at these four words, it appears that the answer to this question has to be one of two answers: result or hypothesis. Since we know that a result is what the actual outcome of something is, and a hypothesis is just the expected outcome based on what someone already knows, then we know that hypothesis must be the term for what the expected answer to a question is. Therefore the answer would be C. Hypothesis. Merriam-Webster: Result Б Бto proceed or arise as a consequence, effect, or conclusionБ Conclusion Hypothesis Question Б БA sentence, phrase, or word that asks for information or is used to test someoneБs knowledgeБ Sources:
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