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why does my computer freeze and restart

I would start by looking into your memory. This kind of behavior is very likely a result of memory problems, either incapability or incorrect voltage. I built a computer for my brother using 1. 65v memory, that the motherboard was volting at 1. 58 volts. he experienced periodic bluescreens and the computer turning itself off. Is your configuration 4x1GB ram sticks or 2x2GB? 4 sticks may need a small nudge higher on the voltage to keep completely stable. The i5 2500k is SUPPOSED to have 1. 5v memory, but 1. 65v has been tested and proven to work fine with the processor. As for overheating CPU, you would have to seriously have heat issues for that to be the case. TJMAX for the 2500k is like ~109 C. Download coretemp and monitor where each core sits while under the load of a program like intel burn test or prime 95.

If you memory is not properly volted these programs could cause a blue screen though. This blue screen shouldn't hurt anything, and is simply part of the process of stabilizing your PC. The other option is that your heatsink is improperly seated on the CPU. Even the stock heatsink should NOT have a problem cooling the processor if seated properly and without an overclock. Installing the stock heatsink can be a PITA because it doesn't give a very evident signal that it is connected. I always try to pull the heatsink off, and if there is a good deal of resistance it is most likely properly installed, if it wiggles or a corner pulls out of the hole it is not installed properly.

A faulty power supply could be part of your problems, but I would try everything above before attempting a different/new power supply. What you have suggested is complete conjecture. This problem seems to persist no matter what he is doing, and at random intervals. Normally issues relating to the hard drive are repeatable, and if the drive is able to spin up are often repairable. Let's try checking all of the possible problems that do not involve shelling out money to repair something first. If you are getting a BSOD please let us know what the code is as well.

This will list likely reasons for the BSOD. If there is no BSOD once again I would point to memory rather than processor issues.
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