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why was it so difficult to unify italy

Before the Congress of Vienna the French occupation had far reaching affects on Italy. The power of the Church and the Pope was reduced, changes were made in la
ndownership and land was redistributed. A new middle class began to appear. Agriculture was improved and the peasants were freed from their old feudal ties and obligations. Then when Napoleon was defeated and the restoration of the old regime and monarchs was started, Italy again became a country divided into eleven independent states, excluding the tiny principalities and the Republic of San Marino.

So Italy was not unified after the Congress of Vienna due to a number of reasons, such as the foreign influence of the Central European Powers, parochialism within the states, the lack of a common language and a strong economy coupled with the poor geography that separated Italy from itself and the rest of Europe. 1815 brought the Battle of Waterloo, the fall of Napoleon, and the Congress of Vienna.

The Congress of Vienna, representing the conservative forces of Europe, restored Italy to its pre-Napoleonic state in order to make French invasion harder and to restrain Italy's liberalist and nationalist movements. Austria was given direct control over Lombardy and Venetia, while the rulers of Modena, Parma and Tuscany were all related to the Austrian Hapsburgs. The Papal States were restored under the Pope's control, who was despotic and relied on Austrian force to keep control.

The Kingdom of Naples (which included Sicily) was returned to the rule of a Spanish Bourbon, Ferdinand I, who made an agreement with Austria not to change Naples' system of government without their consent. So, Austria had considerable control over Italy. The only truly Italian state was Piedmont (also called the Kingdom of Sardinia), ruled by King Victor Emmanuel I of the Italian House of Savoy.

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