why does clay soil hold more water

Because clay soil retains a lot of water and is high in organic matter, it can be damaged easily when cultivated while wet. Clay soil is also harder to cultivate than other soil types because it is naturally denser. Because the particles in clay soil swell and shrink as the soil becomes wet and then dries, clay soil can cultivate itself.

In turn, sandy soil is simple to work, and loam soil is moderately difficult to work. Loam and silt are rich nutritionally and easier to work than clay soil, and loam's and silt's particles are not damaged when the soils are worked while wet.
The surface of a soil is where most nutrients and organism are found.

Top soil is composed of lots of organic matter in various stages of decay. Organic matter is the material left behind by plants and animals. It also includes secretions from the roots of plants. Organic matter can absorb and hold lots of water but even in fertile soils there is only a small percentage of water-holding organic matter in the soil, especially when compared to the amount of clay in the soil.

Top soil is typically very permeable because it is constantly being puncutured by roots and traversed by organisms such as worms. Water drains quickly through top soil but much more of it is absorbed by layers of clay found deeper in the soil.

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