why does a battery have a positive and negative end

The following is a really simplified view of things but I hope it helps. Let's say you take a battery and connect it to a resistor. The resistor would have a zero charge. Electrons from the negative pole will want to jump to the resistor, until the charge density on the resistor and battery are similar. If the other end of the resistor is connected to the positive pole of the battery, the extra electrons will want to travel from the resistor to the positive pole of the battery following the charge density gradient.


Now the chemical process within the battery is "triggered" and these electrons are again "moved" to the negative pole of the battery. So, now you have a circuit the electrons go around. So electrons do flow out of the negative side. The positive sign indicates this side is positively charged compared to the negative side. This is due to electrons moving from the positive to negative side and from positively charged ions moving from the negative to the positive side.


The "ground" refers to a point of your circuit, arbitrarily chosen to be the circuit's 0V voltage reference. If the circuit is actually connected to the earth, then that part will become equipotential to the surface of the earth. If the circuit is not physically connected to the earth, then the circuit is called "floating".
In AC systems the two wires of a circuit alternate polarity many times per second.


In electrical power systems, all wires carrying the same instantaneous polarity at any moment will have a common identifying marking scheme, such as wire color. Depending on the conventions used for wiring the power system, the or other marking may also indicate additional properties of the conductor, such as its role as in a power circuit. In a, identifying the wires belonging to a common phase is important to ensure proper operation of the circuit.


Where alternating current circuits are used to carry signals such as audio, polarity is also required to ensure proper function of the system. For example, a set of used for stereo music reproduction will have all device terminals and wiring marked to ensure the same instantaneous polarity, so that the resulting sound produced by each speaker element is in the same phase and add correctly at the listener's ear.

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