why does child labor exist in the world
n estimated are involved in child labour, accounting for. While this figure is a third lower than it was in 2000, campaigners say more still needs to be done to get children out of work and into school. Patrick Quinn, child labour specialist with the
(ILO), says the first step to reducing the incidence of child labour is ensuring that people know what it is. The ILO child labour as work that Бdeprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental developmentБ. In its most extreme forms, child labour can involve youngsters being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to hazards and illnesses or left alone on city streets. БPeople donБt always understand the seriousness of child labour and many may see it as an acceptable pathway to adult work,Б says Quinn. БWhat weБre focused on is ensuring children are free to access education. Б To mark, we bust five myths on child labour and its impact on children. 1. Every form of child labour is bad The type of work children can be involved in differs greatly, and not all work done by children has been targeted for elimination. For instance, if a child or teenager is involved in work that does not have a negative impact on their health or prevent them from attending school, it is generally considered acceptable. It is recognised that this type of work can be a positive influence on children by contributing to their personal development and the welfare of their families. 2. Most child labourers work in factories show that 58. 6% of child labourers aged between five and 17 work in the agricultural sector; 6. 9% work in domestic work; 7. 2% work in the industrial sector including mining, manufacturing and construction, and 25. 4% work in services including retail trade, restaurants and transport.
БOften, most people hear about children working in sweatshops and factories, but in fact the majority of child labour occurs in agriculture, often in very poor subsistence farming areas,Б Quinn said. 3. Child labour only exists in poor countries Child labour is a global problem. The largest number of child labourers are found in Asia and the Pacific ( ), while sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labour, with 21% of children aged between five and 17 involved in the practice. But beyond these regions, child labour is still an issue. БOf the 168 million children in child labour, 12 million are in upper or middle income countries,Б said Quinn. БWhile clearly the problem is most serious in lower income countries, it is not exclusively a problem for those areas. The stats are harder to find because there hasnБt been the same emphasis on child labour in high income countries, but there are several incidences in Europe and the US where children are working in hazardous work, particularly children aged 15 to 17. Б 4. Child labour is a necessary evil for growing economies There is a school of thought that major economies were built partly of child labour, and that the availability of cheap labour is necessary for todayБs burgeoning economies. Domestic workers in private households, of which are children, play an in the smooth running of national economies, as do garment and factory workers. But the ILO argues that growing economies require and a skilled workforce to flourish.
БIf you look at a number of countries in Asia, South America and elsewhere, there are examples of economies that have expanded rapidly while making education and social protection schemes a priority. For many, investing in education has helped,Б said Quinn. 5. Child labour helps young people transition into paid work as adults The ILOБs on the state of child labour examines the long-term effects of a child workforce, including the employment outcomes of former child labourers. The research found that young people with prior involvement in child labour were more likely to be in unpaid family work or in low-paying jobs as adults, while those who had left school at or below the general minimum working age of 15 were at greater risk of remaining outside the world of work altogether. Today, throughout the world, around 218 million children work, many full-time. They do not go to school and have little or no time to play. Many do not receive proper nutrition or care. They are denied the chance to be children. More than half of them are exposed to the worst forms of child labour such as work in hazardous environments, slavery, or other forms of forced labour, illicit activities including drug trafficking and prostitution, as well as involvement in armed conflict. Guided by the principles enshrined in ILO's and the, the works to achieve the effective abolition of child labour. One of the major aims set for the at its founding in 1919 was the abolition of child labour. Historically, the ILOБs principal tool in pursuing the goal of effective abolition of child labour has been the adoption and supervision of labour standards that embody the concept of a minimum age for admission to employment or work.
Furthermore, from 1919 onwards the principle that minimum age standards should be linked to schooling has been part of the ILOБs tradition in standard setting in this area. Convention No. 138 provides that the minimum age for admission to employment shall not be less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling. The ILOБs adoption of Convention No. 182 in 1999 consolidated the global consensus on child labour elimination. It provided much-needed focus without abandoning the overarching goal, expressed in Convention No. 138, of the effective abolition of child labour. Moreover, the concept of the worst forms helps set priorities and can be used as an entry point in tackling the mainstream child labour problem. The concept also helps to direct attention to the impact of work on children, as well as the work they perform. The unconditional worst forms of child labour, which are internationally defined as slavery, trafficking, debt bondage and other forms of forced labour, forced recruitment of children for use in armed conflict, prostitution and pornography, and illicit activities. Labour performed by a child who is under the minimum age specified for that kind of work (as defined by national legislation, in accordance with accepted international standards), and that is thus likely to impede the childБs education and full development. Labour that jeopardizes the physical, mental or moral well-being of a child, either because of its nature or because of the conditions in which it is carried out, known as Бhazardous workБ.
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