why does all bonding occur between atoms ions and molecules
Because of the high specific heat of water relative to other materials, water will change its temeprature less than other liquids when it absorbs or loses a given amount of heat. Water resists changing its temeprature; when it does change its temperature, it absorbs or loses a relatively large quantity of heat for each degree of change. A large body of water can absorb and store a huge amount of heat from the sun in the daytime and during summer while warming up only a few degrees. At night and during winter, the gradually cooling water can warm the air.
This capability of water serves to moderate air temperatures in coastal areas. This also stabilizes ocean temperature.
Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion. Ionic bonds require an electron donor, often a metal, and an electron acceptor, a nonmetal.
Ionic bonding is observed because metals have few electrons in their outer-most orbitals. By losing those electrons, these metals can achieve noble gas configuration and satisfy the octet rule. Similarly, nonmetals that have close to 8 electrons in their valence shells tend to readily accept electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. In ionic bonding, more than 1 electron can be donated or received to satisfy the octet rule. The charges on the anion and cation correspond to the number of electrons donated or received.
In ionic bonds, the net charge of the compound must be zero. This sodium molecule donates the lone electron in its valence orbital in order to achieve octet configuration. This creates a positively charged cation due to the loss of electron. This chlorine atom receives one electron to achieve its octet configuration, which creates a negatively charged anion. The predicted overall energy of the ionic bonding process, which includes the ionization energy of the metal and electron affinity of the nonmetal, is usually positive, indicating that the reaction is endothermic and unfavorable.
However, this reaction is highly favorable because of the electrostatic attraction between the particles. At the ideal interatomic distance, attraction between these particles releases enough energy to facilitate the reaction. Most ionic compounds tend to dissociate in polar solvents because they are often polar. This phenomenon is due to the opposite charges on each ion.
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