why does glucose appear in the urine of a diabetic
Blood is filtered by millions of, the functional units that comprise the kidneys. In each nephron, blood flows from the
into the, a tuft of leaky. The surrounds each glomerulus, and collects the filtrate that the glomerulus forms. The filtrate contains waste products (e. g. ), (e. g. , ), and glucose. The filtrate passes into the of the kidney. In the first part of the renal tubule, the, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate, across the tubular epithelium and into the bloodstream. The proximal tubule can only reabsorb a limited amount of glucose. When the blood glucose level exceeds about 160180Pmg/dL, the proximal tubule becomes overwhelmed and begins to excrete glucose in the urine.
This point is called the renal threshold for glucose (RTG). Some people, especially children and pregnant women, may have a low RTG (less than ~7Pmmol/L glucose in blood to have glucosuria). If the RTG is so low that even normal blood glucose levels produce the condition, it is referred to as. Glucose in urine can be identified by. The most common cause of high levels of glucose in the urine is diabetes. Diabetes is a group of diseases that affects the way the body processes glucose. Normally, a hormone called insulin controls the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. In people with diabetes, however, the body either doesnвt make enough insulin or the insulin produced doesnвt work properly.
This causes glucose to build up in the blood. Symptoms of diabetes include: There are two main types of diabetes. , also known as juvenile diabetes, is usually an autoimmune condition that develops when the immune system attacks insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This means that the body canвt make enough insulin, causing glucose to build up in the blood. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin everyday to manage their condition. is a disease that usually develops over time. This condition is often referred to as adult-onset diabetes, but it can affect children as well. In people with type 2 diabetes, the body canвt produce enough insulin and the cells become resistant to its effects.
This means that the cells are unable to take in and store glucose. Instead, glucose remains in the blood. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in people who are overweight and who live a sedentary lifestyle. Both types of diabetes can be managed with the proper treatment. This usually involves taking medication and making lifestyle changes, such as exercising more and eating a healthier diet. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may refer you to a nutritionist. A nutritionist can help you figure out how to better control your glucose levels by eating the proper foods. You can find more information on diabetes at.
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