why does evaporation have a cooling effect on a liquid

An example of evaporated cooling is that of human perspiration. We have pores in our skin from which liquid water internal to our skin is escaping and converting to water vapor in the air. As this happens, it cools down our skin surface. This happens almost constantly to one degree or another. When we are exposed to an environment that is hotter than what is comfortable for us, the degree of perspiration or evaporation increases. And it follows that the cooling effect increases. The more water molecules that are escaping from the liquid phase from our skin surface and from our pores, the more cooling effect there is.

Again, this is because the liquid molecules, as they escape and become vapor, require heat and they take it with them.
condensation involves a gas changing to a liquid. Evaporation is the reason why damp clothes dry on a washing line. Condensation is the reason why windows become foggy on a cold day. The particles in a liquid have different energies.

Some will have enough energy to escape from the liquid and become a gas. The remaining particles in the liquid have a lower average kinetic energy than before, so the liquid cools down as evaporation happens. This is why sweating cools you down. The sweat absorbs energy from your skin so that it can continue to evaporate. The particles in a gas have different energies. Some may not have enough energy to remain as separate particles, particularly if the gas is cooled down.

They come close together and bonds form between them. Energy is released when this happens. This is why steam touching your skin can cause scalds: not only is the steam hot, but energy is released into your skin as the steam condenses. The rate of condensation increases if the temperature of the gas is decreased. On the other hand, the rate of evaporation increases if the temperature of the liquid is increased. It is also increased if: air is moving over the surface of the liquid.

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