why does a power plant need to produce steam
Steam-electric power plants utilize a cooled by water circulating through tubes. The steam which was used to turn the
is exhausted into the condenser. The steam is therefore condensed as it comes in contact with the cool tubes full of circulating water. This condensed steam is withdrawn from the bottom of the surface condenser. The condensed steam is now water, commonly referred to as water. The adjacent image is a diagram of one of the many typical surface condenser designs. For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 C where the of water is much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works under. Thus leaks of non-condensable air into the closed loop must be prevented. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for. If a good source of cooling water is not available, may be used to reject waste heat to the atmosphere. A large river or lake can also be used as a heat sink for cooling the condensers; temperature rises in naturally occurring waters may have undesirable ecological effects, but may also incidentally improve yields of fish in some circumstances. [ In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a, the surface condenser removes the from the steam as it changes states from vapor to liquid.
The heat content ( ) in the steam is referred to as. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a. The feedwater heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine. Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves the of the system. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle. Once this water is again inside the or, the process of adding the or is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the downcomers to the lower inlet waterwall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the waterwalls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear waterwalls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapor in the waterwalls, the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum. The steam/vapor is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the. The and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the waterwalls is repeated.
This process is known as. Any droplets of liquid water carried over into the turbine can produce destructive erosion of the turbine blades. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam, either directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger. As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler. The areas known as and reheater. The steam vapor picks up energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high-pressure turbine. A power plant is an industrial facility that from. Most power plants use one or more that convert into in order to the and, in turn, supply society's needs. The exception is solar power plants, which use to generate this electricity. The type of or that gives a power plant its primary varies. The most common fuels are, and ( ). By far the most important primary energy flow for electricity generation is (water). Other flows that are used to generate electricity include, and. Different countries get their electricity from different types of power plants. For example, in Canada, most electricity generation comes from which account for about 63% of the total electricity generated in Canada.
Please see the below to explore how countries around the world get their electricity. Most plants use their fuel to generate from a reservoir of, usually at a high. The highly pressurized steam then travels through pipes to turn the fan-like blades of a (see for more info). As the turbine begins to spin, it causes giant coils inside the generator to turn. This creates relative motion between a coil of wire and a, which pushes and starts the flow of electricity. power plants their fuel in order to create the to run their external heat engines. A does not use steam like the others: it works similar to a jet engine where is ignited and burned and the creates pressure that turns the turbine. use both the jet engine and steam as well. Types of fossil fuel plants include and, and they are the largest producers of electricity around the world (see below). power plants use processes to generate electricity. In these plants, uranium are split which creates the thermal energy needed to create steam. It then works just like fossil fuel power plants where the steam spins a turbine, generating electricity. The power plants require the use of to carry out these fission processes. Some types of reactors include, reactors, and. use heat from the вs rays to create the steam that is needed to rotate the turbine. Thermal power plants are all limited by the, which means they cannot transform all of their heat energy into electricity.
This limits their, which can be read about on the and pages. power plants get their energy directly from their respective flows in order to generate electricity. These primary energy sources replenish themselves eventually, but are limited in the amount of energy that is available at any given time or place, therefore they are often and. use energy from falling water in rivers and reservoirs to spin a generator and create electricity. This energy source tends to be more than other renewable resources, especially when the facility runs off of a reservoir. get their energy from wind, which upon contact slows down and transfers to the turbine. causes the turbine to spin, and the maximum efficiency of turbines is given by the. use photovoltaic cells in order to create electricity. The incoming from the Sun hit inside the panel's which causes to flow. Solar panels are intermittent but combined with their power can be much more reliable. Once electricity is generated, "step-up" the electric power to a higher in order to travel long distances with minimal. It then travels through "pylons" along overhead power cables to its destination, where transformers subsequently "step-down" the electric power to safe voltages for houses and utilities. For a more complete story please see. The map below shows which primary energy source different countries get the energy to generate their electricity from. Click on the region to zoom into a group of countries, then click on the country to see where its electricity comes from.
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