why do you get goosebumps when you sneeze

Goose bumps (AE), also called goose pimples, goose flesh (BE), chill bumps, chicken skin (Hawaiian Pidgin), or the medical term cutis anserina, are the bumps on a person s skin at the base of body hairs which involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear or awe. The reflex of producing goose bumps is known as horripilation, piloerection, or the pilomotor reflex. It occurs not only in humans but also in many other mammals; a prominent example are porcupines which raise their quills when threatened. Goose bumps are created when tiny muscles at the base of each hair, known as arrectores pilorum, contract and pull the hair erect.


The reflex is started by the sympathetic nervous system, which is in general responsible for many fight-or-flight responses. Goose bumps are often a response to cold: in animals covered with fur or hair, the erect hairs trap air to create a layer of insulation. Goose bumps can also be a response to anger or fear: the erect hairs make the animal appear larger, in order to intimidate enemies. This can for example be observed in the intimidation displays of chimpanzees[1], in stressed mice[2] and rats, and in frightened cats.


In humans, it can even extend to piloerection as a reaction to hearing nails scratch on a chalkboard or listening to awe-inspiring music. [3]
Piloerection as a response to cold or fear is vestigial in humans; as humans retain only very little body hair, the reflex (in humans) now serves no known purpose. In humans, goose bumps are strongest on the forearms, but also occur on the legs, back, and other areas of the skin that have hair. In some people, they even occur in the face or on the head.


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