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why do you get diarrhea during opiate withdrawal

Somewhere between 26. 4 and 36 million people around the world abuse opioids, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimeвs World Drug Report 2012. About 7,000 tons of opium were produced globally. Of the over 2 million people thought to be using substances, such as heroin and opioid pain relievers, all are at
that can be hard to manage. Some people are using Imodium, a diarrhea-prevention medication, in high doses to manage these symptoms. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) says people are not only using illicit opiate drugs, but also prescription medications, such as prescription opiate painkillers. Vicodin is an example of pain medications in this class. These drugs attach to opioid receptors on nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord, but these receptors are also found in other organs and in the gastrointestinal tract. Opioids therefore have profound effects on the body. When an opiate takes effect, the perception of pain is reduced. People often feel calm and an increased sense of wellbeing. They may also get drowsy, confused, nauseous, or constipated. Opioids produced normally in the body are inhibited when someone takes such a medication, while signaling mechanisms begin to adapt as well. This is the process by which dependence takes hold. Over time, it can become hard to stop using an opioid. Doing so can induce withdrawal symptoms that vary in degree from person to person. Plus, tolerance develops with prolonged opiate use, so the body requires more of the drug for the same effects to be felt, and this often means that more of the drug is needed to avoid withdrawal symptoms.

Abdominal cramps and diarrhea tend to occur later. People may also experience nausea and vomiting, and they may also exhibit dilated pupils and goosebumps. While medications, such as buprenorphine and methadone, are often used as part of a medical detox program to treat withdrawal symptoms, some people attempt detox on their own at home. These people may attempt to use Imodium during the process; however, this practice is far from safe. What Is Imodium? People have reported that high doses of Imodium have managed other withdrawal symptoms in addition to diarrhea. No scientific studies, however, have shown it can relieve pain. Doses of 60 milligrams or higher can trigger nausea and vomiting. Some have claimed euphoric effects from such doses as well. More serious symptoms include a skin rash and/or hives, itching, and wheezing or difficulty breathing. One should seek medical attention right away if any of these occur. In humans, Imodium hasnвt been proven to prevent other withdrawal effects. The U. S. National Library of Medicine (NIH), however, studied monkeys that were dependent on morphine. High doses of loperamide hydrochloride seemed to prevent signs of withdrawal. Clinical studies also found low abuse potential for the medication, although there are profound implications with overdose. According to NIH, an overdose can be treated by administering activated charcoal. This limits how much drug can be absorbed into the bodyвs circulation. People may experience vomiting but, once they can retain fluids, 100 grams of activated charcoal is the recommended dose. It should not be given until gastric lavage has been performed if the person hasnвt yet vomited.

The procedure, also called stomach pumping, cleans out stomach contents. It is often used for those who have consumed large amounts of drugs or alcohol, or a poison. Naloxone may be provided to manage the symptoms of an overdose. This, of course, must be closely monitored, emphasizing the need for clinical oversight during the process. The medication blocks the effects of opioids and is a common form of treatment for narcotic drug overdose. It is injected intravenously, or into the skin or muscle, which also raises the importance of clinical oversight. A person undergoing an Imodium overdose may experience central nervous system, or CNS, depression, according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The person should be monitored for any of these signs for 48 hours or more. Loperamide acts for longer than naloxoneвs 1-3 hours, so repeated treatments may be needed. Even those who are responsive will need to have their vital signs monitored. Overdose symptoms may recur within a couple of days. One can therefore see why clinical treatment is so important at this stage. In addition, the following may occur: More pronounced effects in children, as they are more sensitive to the drug and any CNS effects There are several treatment and detox options for the removal of opioids from the body, and some may provide a more comprehensive model than others. Medical detox, for instance, encompasses both pharmacological and psychological treatment methodologies while under close supervision of both medical and mental health specialists in a safe and comforting residential setting, while standard detox may be performed in an outpatient basis.

Opiate withdrawal symptoms can be very uncomfortable, and medical detox may provide the safest and smoothest way to detox. Vital signs, such as blood pressure, respiration levels, body temperature, and heart rate, can all be closely monitored in a medical detox center that may utilize medications to regulate brain and body functions. Mental health professionals can also evaluate and stabilize individuals during medical detox. While there is no specific timeline for detox, as each individual will likely experience withdrawal from opiates differently, medical detox usually lasts 5-7 days. Medications, such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and other symptom-specific pharmaceuticals, may be useful during medical detox to control the more difficult withdrawal symptoms. Medical professionals may help an individual wean off opioid drugs by slowly lowering, or tapering, the dosage during medical detox. This keeps the opioid receptors filled and prevents the onset of severe withdrawal symptoms. Drug cravings and withdrawal as a whole may be managed by replacing a short-acting opioid like heroin with a longer-acting one such as methadone. Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist often used during opioid detox and dependency treatment as well, as it remains active in the body for longer than most opioids and requires a lower dosage amount. Partial agonists also do not usually create the same high as full agonists do, therefore making them less likely to be abused. Buprenorphine even stops being effective after a certain point, further acting as an abuse deterrent.

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