why do we require artificial sweetening agents

Mr. Roy, the principal of one reputed school organized a seminar in which he invited parents and principals to discuss the serious issue of diabetes and depression in students. They all resolved this issue by strictly banning the junk food in schools and to introduce healthy snacks and drinks like soup, lassi, milk etc. in school canteens. They also decided to make compulsory half an hour physical activities for the students in the morning assembly daily. After six months, Mr. Roy conducted the health survey in most of the schools and discovered a tremendous improvement in the health of students.

After reading the above passage, answer the following :
(i) What are the values (at least two) displayed by Mr. Roy? (ii) As a student, how can you spread awareness about this issue? (iii) What are tranquillizers? Give an example. (iv) Why is use of aspartame limited to cold foods and drinks? Chemicals in Food 1. Artificial Sweetening Agents Sucrose (table sugar) and fructose are the most widely used natural sweeteners. But they add to our calorie intake and promote tooth decay. To avoid these problems many people take artificial sweeteners. Organic substances which have been synthesized in lab are known to be many times sweeter than cane sugar.

Such compounds are known as artificial sweetening agents or artificial sweeteners. (i) Saccharin (o-sulphobenzimide) Discoveredby Johns- Hopkins in 1879 (University of USA). It is the most popular artificial sweetener. It is 550 times as sweet as cane Sugar, since it is insoluble in water, so it is sold in the market as its soluble or calcium salt. It is non-biodegradable so excreted from the body in urine (unchanged). Its use is of great value for diabetic persons and people who need to control intake of calories. (ii) Aspartame It is the methyl ester of the dipeptide derived from phenylalanine aspartic acid.

It is also known as Nutra sweet. It decomposes at baking or cooking temperatures and hence, can used only in cold food and soft drinks. Aspartame has the same amount of calories as sugar (4 cal per gram). Aspartame should not be used by people suffering from the genetic disease known as PKU (phenyl ketone urea). Because in such people decomposition of aspartame gives phenylpyruvic acid. Accumulation ~ phenylpyruvic acid is harmful especially to infants due to brain damage and mental retardation. (iii) Alitame It is quite similar to aspartame but more stable than aspartame.

It is 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The main problem for such sweetenerf is the control of sweeteness of the substance to which it is added because it is high potency sweetener. (iv) Sucralose It is a trichloro derivative of sucrose. It s appearance and taste are like sugar. It is stable at cooking temperature. It is almost 600 times 88 sweet as sucrose. However, it neither provides calories nor causes toot. 1i decay. (v) Cyclamate It is N-cyclohexylsulphamate. It is only 20 times sweeter than cane sugar.

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