why do we have the death penalty in the us
AMERICA is one of only a few countries in the Western world that still puts criminals to death. Even there, executions are on the wane: just 20 were carried out in 2016, down from a peak of 98 in 1999. Popular support is declining, too. Just 60% of Americans approve of the death penalty for murder, down from 80% in the 1990s. Only eight states have carried out an execution since 2015, and around two-thirds either have abolished capital punishment or have a moratorium on its use. But it has not disappeared altogether: during an eight-day stretch in April, Arkansas executed four people, so as not to waste its expiring supply of a lethal-injection drug. And last month in Alabama, a man who spent 35 years on death rowÁand eluded seven execution datesÁwas finally put to death. Why does America continue to execute people? Following the Supreme CourtÁs 1972 ruling iná Furman v Georgia,á
capital punishment was put on hold. The penalty was applied in an arbitrary and capricious manner, violating the Eighth Amendment bar on Ácruel and unusual punishmentsÁ, the justices held. If any factor explains why some criminals get death sentences while most do not, Justice Potter Stewart wrote, Áit is the constitutionally impermissible basis of raceÁ.
Four years later the Supreme Court reinstated the death penalty in Gregg v Georgiaá by a 7-2 majority, finding that states had mended their death-penalty laws to address the concerns in Furman. á One way to understand why America still executes people is to look at the Fifth Amendment, which provides that nobody will Ábe deprived of life. without due process of lawÁ. How could the framers of the constitution have banned capital punishment in the Eighth Amendment when, in the Fifth, they specifically contemplated its existence? á In Gregg,á the court cited two justifications for the death penalty: retributive justice and deterrence. Retribution, Áan expression of societyÁs moral outrage at particularly offensive conductÁ, Justice Stewart wrote, is Áessential in an ordered society that asks its citizens to rely on legal processes, rather than self-help, to vindicate their wrongsÁ. In other words, an abhorrent crime deserves an equally grave penalty. He acknowledged that scholars disagree about how well capital punishment discourages crime, but insisted that Áthe death penalty undoubtedly is a significant deterrentÁ for some potential criminals.
Since Gregg, the Supreme Court has steadily narrowed the pool of miscreants eligible for the death penalty. Rape was nixed as a capital crime in 1977. People with intellectual disabilities and juveniles were spared the ultimate punishment in 2002 and 2005, respectively. But any prospects for the oft-curbed penalty being killed off completely are dimÁdespite a crusade led by Justice Stephen Breyer, who dissented sharply iná Glossip v Gross,á a 2015 case asking whether a drug used in lethal injections entailed the risk of torturing prisoners to death. á Rather than Átry[ing] to patch up the death penaltyÁs legal wounds one at a timeÁ, he wrote, it is time for a Áfull briefing on a more basic question: whether the death penalty violates the constitutionÁ. It was 23 years ago that the late Justice Harry Blackmun predicted in Callins v Collins á that AmericaÁs system of capital punishment was Ádoomed to failureÁá and that while he Ámay not live to see that dayÁ, he had Áfaith that eventually it will arrive. With the Supreme CourtÁs recently reinforced five-justice conservative majority, that day of reckoning seems far off still. Irreversible and mistakes happen.
P Execution is the ultimate, irrevocable punishment: the risk of executing an innocent person can never be eliminated. Since 1973, for example, 150 US prisoners sent to death row have later been exonerated. Others have been executed despite serious doubts about their guilt. Does not deter crime. PCountries who execute commonly e. This claim has been repeatedly discredited, and there is no evidence that the death penalty is any more effective in reducing crime than imprisonment. Often used within skewed justice systems. PSome of the countries executing the most people have deeply unfair legal systems. The top three executing countries P,P and Iraq have issued death sentences after unfair trials. Many death sentences are issued after confessions that have been obtained through torture. Discriminatory. PYou are more likely to be sentenced to death if you are poor or belong to a racial, ethnic or religious minority because of discrimination in the justice system. Also, poor and marginalized groups have less access to the legal resources needed to defend themselves. Used as a political tool. PThe authorities in some countries, for example Iran and Sudan, use the death penalty to punish political opponents.
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