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why do we call water a polar molecule

Water is a polar molecular because of the nature of the atoms in its formula. The formula for water is H20. In a molecular drawing, an oxygen atom in the center is covalently bonded to a hydrogen on either side. Oxygen attracts electrons more than hydrogen can and this results in a positive charge on the hydrogen atoms and a negative charge on the oxygen atom. This causes water to have an electrical attraction toPother water molecules, called a dipole moment. Hydrogen bonds form and break continuously between water molecules.

The positive part of one water molecule is attracted to the negative part of another and so on. If one observes water dripping from a faucet, it appears to stretch due to the attraction of one molecule of water to the next. Cohesion takes place. A water molecule can form up to four hydrogen bonds because it can accept two and donate two hydrogen atoms.
A water molecule, because of its shape, is a polar molecule. That is, it has one side that is positively charged and one side that is negatively charged.

The molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. The bonds between the atoms are called covalent bonds, because the atoms share electrons. The hydrogen atoms have one electron each. Because they share those electrons with the oxygen atom, the electrons tend to stay close to the oxygen atom and the outside of the hydrogen atom tends to be positively charged. The oxygen atom has eight electrons. Most of those tend to stay away from the hydrogen atoms, and cause the outside of the oxygen atom to have a negative charge.

When two water molecules get close together, the polar forces work to draw the molecules together. The oxygen atom of one water molecule will bond with several hydrogen atoms of other water molecules. These bonds are called hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are not as strong as covalent bonds, but they are strong enough to bind water molecules together and give water its unique characteristics. (An analogy concerning the bonds is that the covalent bonds are like a strong glue bond while the hydrogen bonds are like the bond between two toy magnets).

Two of those characteristics are: water's great ability to dissolve materials, and water's lower density when it is frozen. At any time about 20% of the water molecules in liquid water are freed of their hydrogen bonds and able to hydrate other materials in the water. The Triangular Wave treatment technology takes advantage of this unique characteristic of water, a polar molecule.

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