why do we need laws against racism
Physical, psychological or sexual maltreatment for racist or discriminatory reasons
The internal regulations of public agencies must prohibit such acts, accept complaints about them, and must turn over criminally culpable employees for prosecution. Physical, psychological or sexual maltreatment for racist or discriminatory reasons, when these are not criminal Private institutions must revise their internal regulations so that any of these acts by employees are considered internal faults, must share denunciations made against their employees with the Committee against Racism, and must inform prosecutors of criminal acts. Article 15 prohibits discrimination in the right to enter establishments serving the public, including the hanging of signs advertising such discrimination. Municipalities have the responsibility to enforce this norm by three days of closure at the first offense, thirty days on the second, and definitive closure on the third. Article 21 of the law makes racist or discriminatory motives an aggravating factor for all crimes, many subject to a one-third increase in minimum sentence and one-half increase in maximum sentence, not exceeding the overall maximum set by the Bolivian constitution. Articles 22 and 23 create a series of "crimes against human dignity," as Chapter V of Title VIII of the Bolivian Penal Code. These are: The crime of Racism : "to arbitrary and illegally restrict, annul, devalue or impede the exercise of individual or collective rights on the basis of race, national or ethic origin, color, ancestry, membership in a nation, indigenous originary campesino people, or the Afro-Bolivian people, or the use of the clothing or language of such people," punishable by three to seven years of deprivation of liberty. The crime is aggravated if committed by a public servant or a private individual providing public service, or committed with violence. The crime of Discrimination : "to arbitrary and illegally obstruct, restrict, devalue, impede, or annul the exercise of individual or collective rights on the basis of sex, age, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, cultural identity, family background, nationality, citizenship, language, religious creed, ideology, political or philosophical opinion, civil status, economic or social condition, illness, type of occupation, grade of instruction, physical, intellectual or sensory handicap or alternate capacity, pregnancy, regional origin, physical appearance, or clothing," punishable by one to five years of deprivation of liberty.
The crime is aggravated if committed by a public servant or a private individual providing public service, or committed with violence. The crime of Diffusion and incitement to racism and discrimination : "to disseminate through any media ideas based on racial superiority or hate, or than promote and/or justify racism or discrimination" for the motives described above; and "to incite violence against or persecution of people or groups of people on the basis of racist or discriminatory motives," punishable by one to five years of deprivation of liberty. The crime is aggravated if committed by a public servant or a public authority. Media workers and media owners do not benefit from immunity or fuero. Banning Racist or discriminatory organizations and associations : Membership in organizations or associations that "promote and/or justify racism or discrimination" as defined above, or "incite to hatred of, violence against, and persecution of persons or groups of persons on the basis of racist or discriminatory motives" is criminalized, punishable by one to four years of deprivation of liberty. The crime is aggravated if committed by a public servant or a public authority. The crime of Racist or discriminatory verbal aggression : "the realization of insults or other verbal aggression for racist or discriminatory motives," punishable by 40 days to 18 months of community service work and a fine of forty to 150 days' wages. The crime is aggravated if committed in print, manuscript or media. If an accused person who retracts the aggression at or before the time of indictment, the criminal process is extinguished; however, only one retraction may be considered.
Retractions must be issued by the same medium and with the same reach as the original aggression, with the responsible party assuming the costs involved. Article 24 also considers a variety of instances of discriminatory actions which may be considered through private, civil actions between the parties involved. Racism, the belief that one race is inherently better than another (or all others), is sadly still evident in our world today. Though discrimination based on race is illegal in the United Kingdom, and there is an international Convention calling for the end of racial discrimination, many private citizens still harbour racism in their thoughts, attitudes and actions. Understanding the laws relating to racism and learning how to effectively fight racism are matters that anyone can undertake. The Race Relations Act 1976 and all of its amendments and extensions protect individuals from being discriminated against in employment on the grounds of colour, race, nationality, religious beliefs or ethnicity. This Act does not distinguish between whether racist practices were done on purpose or not, it is concerned only with the fact that racial discrimination occurred. Four main types of discrimination are described in legislation related to employment. Direct discrimination is deliberate and obvious, for example if a promotion is being held only for members of one race. Indirect discrimination occurs when practices of policies disadvantage one or more racial groups, such as requiring members of one race to complete more tasks than another but expecting them to get their work done just as quickly. Harassment occurs when the workplace is allowed to become a hostile environment for members of a certain race, whether through direct threats, methods of intimidation or "jokes" about that race. Finally, victimisation occurs when someone has complained about racism and is then treated less fairly than others, such as being denied overtime or their preferred shifts. These actions are all in breach of the Race Relations Act 1976 and its amendments and extensions, and should be reported if they are observed or experienced.
The United Nations' International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is the main international document to address the issues of racism and racial discrimination. It was adopted in 1965 and came into force in 1969. This Convention particularly addresses racial discrimination in employment and education. Though it is not necessarily strictly enforceable in individual nations, those nations who did sign and ratify the Convention have agreed to meet the standards set forth in it. Reporting racist practices and confronting racist individuals are both ways of fighting racism. If it is believed that racial discrimination has taken place in breach of the Race Relations Act 1976 and its amendments and extensions then going to court is one way of reporting racist practices in employment. Reporting racial discrimination to local authorities is another method of calling attention to inappropriate practices, particularly if racism is experienced while receiving health or social care. Finally, reporting racial discrimination to organisations working for equal rights may also help to eradicate such behaviours. The Equality and Human Rights Commission, One Workplace, Rewind and the Race Equality Foundation all work for racial equality and fight against racial discrimination in the United Kingdom. Confronting racial discrimination when it occurs is also something that anyone can do. Every time an individual reconsiders a stereotype, speaks out against discrimination, ceases to make sexist jokes and references, tells others that such jokes and references are unacceptable, and does all that (s)he can to learn from the talents of each individual, regardless of race or skin colour, then racism and racial discrimination are being fought. However, individuals should only confront racists or racist practices if it is safe to do so. If it is not, then walking away and reporting the incident to the relevant authority or authorities is a better idea.
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