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why do we need computer to process data and information

Simply put, data is information. Data can be numbers, strings of characters or images. All data must be entered into the computer for it to be processed. Data can be read out of a file, typed in via the keyboard or scanned in like a bar code. From a computer programmer s viewpoint, this is considered raw data that needs to be processed. What is data? Why use a computer to process data? Computers process very large amounts of data because they can interpret the data much more quickly than a person. Most data processing is mundane, and would be prone to human error if not processed by computer. Computers process data so fast that their speed is measured in MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second). The computer s brain. A computer uses a Central Processing Unit or CPU to do all its decision-making and data processing. The CPU has an internal set of instructions it follows when it receives a command. Programmers use different languages to give the CPU commands. These languages are more human readable than the CPU s machine language. The CPU follows the programmer s logic to process the data given it. Data as output. Part of the programmer s instructions will be how to save the processed data.

Again data can be written to a file, but output usually goes to a printed report as well. A payroll system will produce several types of output, it prints checks, updates accounting databases and produces files that are sent to the government to show the amount of taxes withheld. Garbage in, garbage out. The data that is input to the computer must be good data, or the output will be useless. Computers on their own are unintelligent machines. They follow the instructions given them, and process data without thought.
Data analysis Data Analysis is the domain from which the data are harvested is a science or an engineering field. Data processing and information systems are considered terms that are too broad and the more specialized term data analysis is typically used. This is a focus on the highly-specialized and highly-accurate algorithmic derivations and statistical calculations that are less often observed in the typical general business environment. In these contexts data analysis packages like DAP, gretl or PSPP are often used. This divergence of culture is exhibited in the typical numerical representations used in data processing versus numerical; data processing's measurements are typically represented by integers or by fixed-point or binary-coded decimal representations of numbers whereas the majority of data analysis's measurements are often represented by floating-point representation of rational numbers. [edit]Processing Basically, data are nothing but facts (organized or unorganized) which can be converted into other forms to make it useful, clear and practically used.

This process of converting facts to information is Processing. Practically all naturally occurring processes can be viewed as examples of data processing systems where "observable" information in the form of pressure, light, etc. are converted by human observers into electrical signals in the nervous system as the senses we recognize as touch, sound, and vision. Even the interaction of non-living systems may be viewed in this way as rudimentary information processing systems. Conventional usage of the terms data processing and information systems restricts their use to refer to the algorithmic derivations, logical deductions, and statistical calculations that recur perennially in general business environments, rather than in the more expansive sense of all conversions of real-world measurements into real-world information in, say, an organic biological system or even a scientific or engineering system.

Computer data processing is any process that a computer program does to enter data and summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information. The process may be automated and run on a computer. It involves recording, analysing, sorting, summarising, calculating, disseminating and storing data. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems. Nevertheless, the terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise information systems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output. Data processing may or may not be distinguished from data conversion, when the process is merely to convert data to another format, and does not involve any data manipulation.

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