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why do we need to classify plants

) Focus Question What is classification, and why is it important? Materials Procedure with, and write down, as many plants as possible. Put some examples on the board to get them started. (e. g. apple tree, pine tree, fern, grass, rice, corn, wheat, algae). call out the plants that they came up with, and add these to the examples already on the board. get into groups of four and give them 7 to 10 minutes to come up with categories (no more than 3-4) that can be used to organize the plants on the board. This is just a warm-up to get them thinking about ways of categorization. students talk to each other about how they chose to classify the plants. Discussion Questions What are some ways the groups classified plants? How did they come to those decisions? Is it important to have an organized and predetermined way of classifying plants? Why or why not? Talk about how scientists generally conduct classification of plants (using physical similarities and dissimilarities) to distinguish species from one another. Talk about why classification is important.


The following are some suggested reasons:
It helps us remember different plants (i. e. it is possible to remember more plants if we can organize them into categories) discovery of new species because it aids in predicting what characteristics newly discovered species have if we can compare and contrast them with already known species. (For example, if all female mammals produce milk for babies, then females in a new mammal species should also have the ability to produce milk. ) Бmapping outБ the diverse and vast world of plants, since it gives us a method of creating relationships. Why classify? When you have a lot of things to keep track of, it is helpful to have an organizing scheme. Where do you look for cookies at the grocery store? How do you tell your friend where you live? How do you find your favorite CD at the music store? With as many living things as there are in the world, we need a good way to keep track. function form artificial natural affinities People have been using plants and naming and classifying them forever, even if not written.


Sometimes called folk taxonomy food, beverages fibers building materials poisons (on arrows for fishing or hunting) medicinal narcotic, hallucinatory (spiritual practices) ca. 300 BC, studied under Plato and Aristotle, considered father of botany. Described 500 plant species, including cotton, pepper, cinnamon, bananas and named many modern genera including Asparagus and Narcissus. Classified all plants as trees, shrubs, herbs (different forms) wrote 37 volume Natural History encyclopedia 9 volumes on medicinal plants Roman military surgeon Wrote Described 600 medicinal plants Islamic Scholars preserved botanical works when Europe Academic work began again in Europe Printing press invented in 1440 AD Herbals books of flora (description of plants in a given area), focus on medicinal use (functional) Time of wide exploration Now instead of hundreds of plant species, 15,000 species to be classified In need of a new system to keep track Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) Swedish botanist Attempted an artificial classification scheme A sexual system based on number Grouped unlike plants together (grouped cacti and cherries together) Linnaeus was much more successful in proposing a new system for naming plant species Binomial nomenclature and de Candolle important early works (1700s, early 1800s) But grouped plants just by similar features, not recognizing potential for change Phylogenetic Compiled a very detailed flora of all known vascular plants, with extensive illustrations and keys, arranging plant families according to contemporary theory of phylogeny We currently recognize a different sequence of phylogeny, but work remains valid in its exhaustive detail.


Phylogenetic relationships among plants. Charles John Hutchinson Arthur Each has built upon the works of earlier botanists. Classification is still a work in progress. Each category is called a taxon (plural = taxa) Higher taxa are more inclusive Names of most taxa (except Kingdom and above genus) are of a genus name with a suffix indicating taxonomic level Taxa may be formed in between these groups (subclass, tribe, etc. ) but we wont use them.


For example, spearmint was known as:, (Means mint, flowers in spike, leaves oblong and serrate) Mentha. 1753 7,300 species All species names have two basic words: genus plus specific epithet. Genus is a noun, specific epithet is an adjective (or possessive noun) that modifies it. Linnaea borealis L. genus name. specific epithet. authority may be added abbreviated, e. g. Linnaeus = L. or Linn. Linnaea borealis L. First usage in a scientific publication On formal herbarium labels In Taxonomic literature or Use Latin words or words that have been Latinized First letter of genus name is always capitalized. Rest of letters all lowercase. Pseudotsuga 1. Every vowel (or pair of vowels) pronounced Tolmiea 2. No silent letters at end Cardamine 3. First letter silent when: pt, 4. Potentilla Why use scientific and not common names? Oregon myrtle in OR California bay in CA Umbellularia Plantago major Cedar is used for species in at least 4 different general and two families Cedrus,

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