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why do we require artificial sweetening agents

Diabetes mellitus is the third leading cause of death in the world. It is a clinical condition characterized by increased blood glucose level due to insufficient or inefficient INSULIN. Diabetes is a major cause of night blindness,renal failure,heart attacks,strokes obesity. A diabetes patient is advised to consume low calories(i. e low fat carbohydrates high protein fiber rich diet. Carbohydrates should be taken in the form of starches complex sugars. The intake of refined sugars (sucrose,glucose) should be avoided Therefore, artificial sweetening agents that do not add to the calorie intake of a person are required.

Saccharin(500 times as sweet as sucrose), aspartame(a peptide 160 times sweeter than sucrose) are few examples of artificial sweeteners.
Chemicals in Food 1. Artificial Sweetening Agents Sucrose (table sugar) and fructose are the most widely used natural sweeteners. But they add to our calorie intake and promote tooth decay. To avoid these problems many people take artificial sweeteners. Organic substances which have been synthesized in lab are known to be many times sweeter than cane sugar. Such compounds are known as artificial sweetening agents or artificial sweeteners. (i) Saccharin (o-sulphobenzimide) Discoveredby Johns- Hopkins in 1879 (University of USA).

It is the most popular artificial sweetener. It is 550 times as sweet as cane Sugar, since it is insoluble in water, so it is sold in the market as its soluble or calcium salt. It is non-biodegradable so excreted from the body in urine (unchanged). Its use is of great value for diabetic persons and people who need to control intake of calories. (ii) Aspartame It is the methyl ester of the dipeptide derived from phenylalanine aspartic acid.

It is also known as Nutra sweet. It decomposes at baking or cooking temperatures and hence, can used only in cold food and soft drinks. Aspartame has the same amount of calories as sugar (4 cal per gram). Aspartame should not be used by people suffering from the genetic disease known as PKU (phenyl ketone urea). Because in such people decomposition of aspartame gives phenylpyruvic acid. Accumulation ~ phenylpyruvic acid is harmful especially to infants due to brain damage and mental retardation. (iii) Alitame It is quite similar to aspartame but more stable than aspartame.

It is 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The main problem for such sweetenerf is the control of sweeteness of the substance to which it is added because it is high potency sweetener. (iv) Sucralose It is a trichloro derivative of sucrose. It s appearance and taste are like sugar. It is stable at cooking temperature. It is almost 600 times 88 sweet as sucrose. However, it neither provides calories nor causes toot. 1i decay. (v) Cyclamate It is N-cyclohexylsulphamate. It is only 20 times sweeter than cane sugar.

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