why do they do a bone marrow biopsy
When your doctor thinks youвre ready, youвll have the transplant. The procedure is similar to a blood transfusion. If youвre having an allogeneic transplant, bone marrow cells will be harvested from your donor a day or two before your procedure. If your own cells are being used, theyвll be retrieved from the stem cell bank. Cells are collected in two ways. During a bone marrow harvest, cells are collected from both hipbones through a needle. Youвre under anesthesia for this procedure, meaning youвll be asleep and free of any pain. During leukapheresis, a donor is given five shots to help the stem cells move from the bone marrow and into the bloodstream.
Blood is then drawn through an intravenous (IV) line, and a machine separates out the white blood cells that contain stem cells. A needle called a central venous catheter, or a port, will be installed on the upper right portion of your chest. This allows the fluid containing the new stem cells to flow directly into your heart. The stem cells then disperse throughout your body. They flow through your blood and into the bone marrow. Theyвll become established there and begin to grow. The port is left in place because the bone marrow transplant is done over several sessions for a few days. Multiple sessions give the new stem cells the best chance to integrate themselves into your body.
That process is known as engraftment. Through this port, youвll also receive blood transfusions, liquids, and possibly nutrients. You may need medications to fight off infections and help the new marrow grow. This depends on how well you handle the treatments. During this time, youвll be closely monitored for any complications.
Bone marrow is the spongy material found in substantial amouts in the center of most large bones in the body. The different cells that make up blood are made in the bone marrow after birth. Prior to our birth, this activity primarily goes on in the and slpeen.
Bone marrow produces red blood cells for energy and the transportation of oxygen to the tissues, white blood cells to fight infection and support our immune systems, and platelets to help our. During the biopsy procedure (properly called bone marrow aspiration and biopsy), the liquid portion of the marrow is sampled by aspiration, and then the solid portion of the marrow and surrounding bone are taken in the biopsy. Why the procedure is performed: A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy procedure is done for many reasons. The test allows the doctor to evaluate bone marrow function. It may aid in the diagnosis of low numbers of red blood cells ( ), low numbers of white blood cells (leukopenia), or low numbers of platelets ( ), or an abnormal appearance these types of blood cells.
The doctor can also determine the cause of some infections, diagnose tumors, determine how far a disease, such as, has progressed or spread, and evaluate the effectiveness of or other bone marrow active drugs. Where the procedure is performed: Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies can be performed in doctor s offices, outpatient clinics, and hospitals. The procedure itself takes 10 to 20 minutes with much of that time taken both cleaning the skin over and then numbing the surface of the area to be sampled.
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