why do sunspots appear darker than their surroundings
Why do sunspots appear darker than their surroundings? The Sun is by no means a completely uniform color. Sunspots, which can be seen as dark areas on the surface of the Sun, are a common occurrence. Most sunspots are large, measuring around 8,000 miles across; in fact, they have the same diameter as Earth! Sunspots appear darker than their surroundings because they are at a lower temperature. The surface of the Sun is usually around 5,800 degrees Kelvin (9,980 degrees Fahrenheit), while the center of a sunspot is closer to 4,300 degrees Kelvin (7,280 degrees Fahrenheit). This area of lower temperature is actually the definition of a sunspot. As you can see, sunspots are not cold by any means.
They only appear dark because the surface of the Sun around them is so much hotter. If they were held up next to a star that was cooler, the sunspots would appear bright in comparison.
Typical sunspots have a dark region (umbra) surrounded by a lighter region, the penumbra. While sunspots have a temperature of about 6300 бF (3482. 2 бC), the surface of the sun which surrounds it has a temperature of 10,000 бF (5537. 8 бC). From Sunspots are actually regions of the solar surface where the magnetic field of the Sun becomes concentrated over 1000-fold. Scientists do not yet know how this happens.
Magnetic fields produce pressure, and this pressure can cause gas inside the sunspot to be in balance with the gas outside the sunspot. but at a lower temperature. Sunspots are actually several thousand degrees cooler than the 5,770 K (5496. 8 бC) surface of the Sun, and contain gases at temperature of 3000 to 4000 K (2726. 9 - 3726. 8 бC). They are dark only by contrast with the much hotter solar surface. If you were to put a sunspot in the night sky, it would glow brighter than the Full Moon with a crimson-orange color! Sunspots are areas of intense magentic activity, as is apparent in this image: You can see the material kind of getting stretched into strands.
As for the reason Although the details of sunspot generation are still a matter of research, it appears that sunspots are the visible counterparts of in the Sun's that get "wound up" by. If the stress on the tubes reaches a certain limit, they curl up like a rubber band and puncture the Sun's surface. Convection is inhibited at the puncture points; the energy flux from the Sun's interior decreases; and with it surface temperature. All in all, the sunspots appear dark because the are darker than the surrounding surface. They're darker because they are cooler, and they're cooler because of the intense magnetic fields in them.
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