why do polar molecules dissolve in water
with covalent bonds dissolve in water. The water surrounds the polar sites of the molecules at the interface with the solute (whether it is a solid, a liquid, or a gas) and strips the molecules away. When a dissolves in a, the individual particles of the solute separate from their neighbours and move between the spaces of the solvent particles. The solvent particles collide with the solute particles and the between solute and solvent particles "hold" the solute particles in the spaces. The solvent particles must move apart to make room for solute particles. This process requires energy to overcome forces of attraction between solvent particles. This first step is endothermic. The solute particles must separate from their neighbours. This process also requires energy to overcome the forces of attraction between the solute particles. The second step is endothermic. When the solute particles move between the solvent particles, the between solute and solvent take hold and the particles "snap" back and move closer. This process releases energy. The final step in the dissolving process is exothermic. Consider the process of dissolving a cube of sugar (CввHввOвв) in water. In the space-filling model of sucrose (below), red represents oxygen, light gray represents hydrogen, and dark gray represents carbon.
Like water, sucrose has oxygen atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms (O-H bonds). The areas near the oxygen atoms are slightly negative, and the areas near the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. That is, the O-H bonds are polar. Sucrose molecules are attracted to each other because of the dipole-dipole attractions among the O atoms in one molecule and the H atoms in the neighbouring molecules. These particularly strong attractions are called. Sucrose has several polar O-H groups. This is why it dissolves in water However, the covalent bonds within the molecule aren't broken. Rather, you are breaking the hydrogen bonds that hold that hold the sucrose molecules to each other in the crystal. If we add water, the O-H groups in the water form hydrogen bonds to the sucrose molecules in the crystal. In turn, the sucrose molecules use their O H groups to form H-bonds with the water molecules. We see below a picture of water molecules attacking the surface of sucrose. The intermolecular forces among the sucrose molecules are weaker than those between the sucrose molecules and water. The water molecules surround the sucrose molecules, replacing the sucrose-sucrose H-bonds with sucrose-water H bonds. Eventually, the sucrose molecules leave the surface of the crystal and disperse themselves throughout the water as hydrated sucrose molecules.
We end up with a solution of hydrated sucrose molecules in water. The same processes occur when any polar molecule dissolves in a polar solvent. If the solute-solvent intermolecular forces of attraction are greater than the solvent-solvent forces, the substance will be soluble. The solubility depends on the strengths of the intermolecular forces (i. e. the polarity of the solvent). The relative strengths are: H-bonds dipole-dipole dipole-induced dipole London dispersion. Thus, a solvent that is capable only of will not be as good a solvent for sucrose as water (which has H-bonding). These are the steps to help you understand exactly why a non-polar compound is the only type of compound that water is not able to dissolve!!! An example of a non-polar compound dissolving another non-polar compound that will be used in these steps isPpropane, CH, dissolving inPbutane, CH. 1) Water will try to surround the non-polar molecule and try to attract them apart from each other, but all this does it forms a strong hydrogen bond, or, intermolecularP forcePamong the water molecule. 2) The non-polar compound cannot join the bonds of the water molecule because of it s weak attraction and theP absencePof dipoles.
They do not have negative and positive ends. The non-polar molecules become neutralPamongPthe water, and the waters attractive bonds with each other then push the non-polar compound away andPseparatePfrom them. Therefore, a non-polar compound is insoluble in water. But, whatP WILL Pdissolve a non-polar compound? You guessed it, a non-polar compound will dissolve in a non-polar compound! 3) Non-polar compounds dissolve in non-polar compounds because instead of trying to attract with the non-polar molecules, they simply mix in with them, using dispersion forces, the molecules are then able to disperse evenly apart from one another,PseparatingPthem and making them vulnerable. 4) Since both propane and butane compounds are non-polar, there are NOPelectrostatic forces or dipole s attracting or repelling from each other, so it is easy for them to mix, because they both have similar charges, they are neither strong or weak, merely neutral; allowing the molecules to disperse evenly. 5) This is why water molecules would not be able to attract and pull apart the propane molecules. The water molecules ended up attracting each other and pushing the non-polar compound (propane) out of their way!! Therefore, a non-polar compound is solubleP in a non-polar compound.
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