why do so many psychologists work at universities
[ ] [ Get the education you need: Although psychologists typically need a doctoral degree in psychology, a master's degree may be sufficient for school and industrial organizational positions. Psychologists in clinical practice need a license. Most clinical, counseling, and research psychologists need a doctoral degree. Students can complete a Ph. D. in psychology or a Doctor of Psychology (Psy. D. ) degree. A Ph. D. in psychology is a research degree that is obtained after taking a comprehensive exam and writing a dissertation based on original research. Ph. D. programs typically include courses on statistics and experimental procedures. The Psy. D. is a clinical degree often based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, school, or health service settings, students usually complete a 1-year internship as part of the doctoral program. School psychologists need an advanced degree and either certification or licensure to work. Common advanced degrees include education specialist degrees (Ed. S. ) and doctoral degrees (Ph. D. or Psy. D. ). School psychologist programs include coursework in education and psychology because their work addresses both education and mental health components of students' development. Industrial organizational psychologists typically need a master's degree, usually including courses in industrial organizational psychology, statistics, and research design.
When working under the supervision of a doctoral psychologist, other master's degree graduates can also work as psychological assistants in clinical, counseling, or research settings. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Psychologists
In most states, practicing psychology or using the title "psychologist" requires licensure. In all states and the District of Columbia, psychologists who practice independently must be licensed where they work. Licensing laws vary by state and by type of position. Most clinical and counseling psychologists need a doctorate in psychology, an internship, and at least 1 to 2 years of supervised professional experience. They also must pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. Information on specific state requirements can be obtained from the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. In many states, licensed psychologists must complete continuing education courses to keep their licenses. The American Board of Professional Psychology awards specialty certification in 15 areas of psychology, such as clinical health psychology, couple and family psychology, and rehabilitation psychology. The American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology offers certification in neuropsychology. Board certification can demonstrate professional expertise in a specialty area.
Certification is not required for most psychologists, but some hospitals and clinics do require certification. In those cases, candidates must have a doctoral degree in psychology, a state license or certification, and any additional criteria required by the specialty field. Most prospective psychologists must have pre- or postdoctoral supervised experience, including an internship. Internships allow students to gain experience in an applied setting. Candidates must complete an internship before they can qualify for state licensure. The required number of hours of the internship varies by state. Analytical skills. Psychologists must examine the information they collect and draw logical conclusions. Communication skills. Psychologists must have strong communication skills because they spend much of their time listening to and speaking with patients or describing their research. Integrity. Psychologists must keep patients' problems in confidence, and patients must be able to trust psychologists' expertise in treating sensitive problems. Interpersonal skills. Psychologists study and help individuals, so they must be able to work well with clients, patients, and other professionals. Observational skills. Psychologists study attitude and behavior. They must understand the possible meanings of facial expressions, body positions, actions, and interactions.
Patience. Psychologists must demonstrate patience, because conducting research or treating patients may take a long time. Problem-solving skills. Psychologists need problem-solving skills to collect information, design research, evaluate programs, and find treatments or solutions to mental and behavioral problems. According to 2008 data in the U. S. by the U. S. Labor of Statistics: Psychologists held about 170,200 jobs in 2008. Educational institutions employed. According to 2008 data in the U. S. by the U. S. Labor of Statistics: Psychologists held about 170,200 jobs in 2008. Educational institutions employed about 29 percent of psychologists in positions other than teaching, such as counseling, testing, research, and administration. About 21 percent were employed in healthcare, primarily in offices of mental health practitioners, hospitals, physicians offices, and outpatient mental health and substance abuse centers. Government agencies at the State and local levels employed psychologists in correctional facilities, law enforcement, and other settings. After several years of experience, some psychologistsвusually those with doctoral degreesвenter private practice or set up private research or consulting firms. About 34 percent of psychologists were self-employed in 2008вmainly as private practitioners.
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