why does resting heart rate decrease with exercise
The length of time it takes for heart rate to return to normal is a good measure of fitness. The more fit you are, the faster the recovery. Your heart rate drops most sharply in the first minute after you stop exercising; it should then fall about 20 beats a minute a drop of less than 12 beats a minute is considered abnormal. This recovery heart rate is measured as part of an exercise stress test. Does regular exercise lower resting heart rate? It may reduce it somewhat over time. Aerobic activities (such as jogging and cycling) enlarge and strengthen the heart so it pumps more blood with each contraction. Not every exerciser experiences this reduction in heart rate, however, and it may take years of exercise for it to occur. But low resting heart rate is often associated with high cardiovascular fitness, and lowering the rate over the course of an aerobic fitness program is a sign that you are achieving a training effect. Studies have shown that people who work out regularly have resting heart rates about 10 beats per minute slower, on average, than sedentary people, and well-trained athletes generally have heart rates 15 to 20 beats lower than average. Even if you don t experience a drop in resting heart rate over time, exercise reduces other heart risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and obesity. High resting heart rate: a risk for heart disease? In general, a slower resting heart rate is better than a faster one, because a faster rate puts more stress on your heart and blood vessels. In fact, studies have consistently linked faster resting heart rates with increased risk of heart disease and death from all causes, independent of fitness level and other cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and being overweight.
A higher heart rate has been linked to poorer outcomes in both healthy people and those with heart disease. Most studies have found a stronger association in men, but a 2009 paper in the
British Medical Journal, of nearly 130,000 postmenopausal women, found that those with the highest resting heart rates were more likely to have a heart attack than those with the lowest rates especially women ages 50 to 64 after controlling for other risk factors. One of the most valuable long-term pieces of information you can gather is resting heart rate. When you wake up each morning, take a minute to get an accurate resting heart rate and keep a log. You ll find this an invaluable tool, providing feedback on injury, illness, overtraining, stress, incomplete recovery, and so on. It is also a very simple gauge of improvements in fitness. We know athletes who have gathered resting heart rate data for years and in a day or two can identify a 1 or 2 bpm elevation that precedes an illness or a bonk session. Some newer heart rate monitors have the capacity for 24-hour monitoring. Several factors affect heart rate at rest and during exercise. In general, the main factors affecting heart rate at rest are fitness and state of recovery. Gender also is suggested to play a role, albeit inconsistently (more about this later). In general, fitter people tend to have lower resting heart rates. Some great athletes of the past have recorded remarkably low resting heart rates. For example, Miguel Indurain, five-time winner of the Tour de France, reported a resting heart rate of only 28 bpm. The reason for this is that, with appropriate training, the heart muscle increases in both size and strength. The stronger heart moves more blood with each beat (this is called stroke volume) and therefore can do the same amount of work with fewer beats.
As you get fitter, your resting heart rate should get lower. The second main factor affecting resting heart rate is state of recovery. After exercise, particularly after a long run or bike ride, several things happen in the body. Fuel sources are depleted, temperature increases, and muscles are damaged. All of these factors must be addressed and corrected. The body has to work harder, and this increased work results in a higher heart rate. Even though you might feel okay at rest, your body is working harder to repair itself, and you ll notice an elevated heart rate. Monitoring your resting heart rate and your exercise heart rate will allow you to make appropriate adjustments such as eating more or taking a day off when your rate is elevated. These same factors of recovery and injury also affect heart rate during exercise. The factors that elevate resting heart rate also elevate exercise heart rate. If you re not fully recovered from a previous workout, you might notice, for example, at your usual steady-state pace, an exercise heart rate that is 5 to 10 bpm higher than normal. This is usually accompanied by a rapidly increasing heart rate throughout the exercise session. An extremely important factor affecting exercise heart rate is temperature. Warmer temperatures cause the heart to beat faster and place considerable strain on the body. Simply put, when it is hot, the body must move more blood to the skin to cool it while also maintaining blood flow to the muscles. The only way to do both of these things is to increase overall blood flow, which means that the heart must beat faster. Depending on how fit you are and how hot it is, this might mean a heart rate that is 20 to 40 bpm higher than normal.
Fluid intake is very important under these conditions. Sweating changes blood volume, which eventually can cause cardiac problems. The simplest and most effective intervention to address high temperature and heart rate is regular fluid intake. This helps to preserve the blood volume and prevent the heart from beating faster and faster. Another important factor affecting exercise heart rate is age. In general, MHR will decline by about 1 beat per year starting at around 20 years old. Interestingly, resting heart rate is not affected. This is why the basic prediction equation of 220 age has an age correction factor. As a side note, this decrease in MHR often is used to explain decreases in. VO2max and endurance performance with increasing age, because the number of times the heart beats in a minute affects how much blood is moved and available to the muscles. We have coached and tested thousands of athletes, and the general trend is that athletes of the same age who produce higher heart rates often have higher fitness scores. However, your MHR is what it is, and you cannot change it. Don t obsess over it. A final factor is gender. Recent studies have suggested a variation in MHR between males and females. However, the data are inconclusive with the calculations resulting in lower MHRs for males versus females of the same age, while anecdotal reports suggest that the MHRs are actually higher in males. In general, females have smaller hearts and smaller muscles overall than males. Both of these factors would support the conclusion of a higher MHR in females, certainly at the same workload. We have to conclude that the jury is still out on the gender effect.
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