why do rabid dogs die after biting
Animals with rabies transfer the virus to other animals and to people via saliva following a bite or via a scratch. However, any contact with the mucous membranes or an open wound can also spread the virus. The transmission of this virus is considered to be exclusively from animal to animal and animal to human. While human-to-human transmission of the virus is extremely rare, there have been a handful of cases reported following transplantation of corneas. For humans who contract rabies, a bite from an unvaccinated dog is by far the most common culprit. Once a person has been bitten, the virus spreads through their nerves to the. ItБs important to note that bites or scratches on the head and neck are thought to speed up the brain and
involvement because of the location of the initial trauma. If youБre bitten on the neck, seek help as soon as possible. Following a bite, the rabies virus spreads by way of the nerve cells to the brain. Once in the brain, the virus multiplies rapidly. This activity causes severe inflammation of the brain and spinal cord after which the person deteriorates rapidly and dies. Both wild and domesticated animals can spread the rabies virus. The following animals are the main sources of rabies infection in humans: 1) Active Immunization People who require immunization before exposure to the virus need three doses of the rabies vaccine (human diploid cell vaccine - HDCV or purified chick embryo cell vaccine - PCECV), one dose each on days 0, 7, and 21.
People who require immunization after contact with the virus need five doses. The first injection should be given as soon as possible and the rest on days 3, 7, 14, and 28. The vaccine provides protection starting 7-10 days after injection and lasting for over a year. The vaccine sometimes causes local reactions at the injection site but rarely severe reactions. 2) Passive Immunization The rabies immune globulin (RabIg) which contains antibodies that neutralize the virus provides rapid protection but lasts for only a few weeks. It is given in one dose directly into the wound as soon as possible after contact. Such wounds should not be sutured. Vaccine (HDCV) and immune globulin (RabIg) should be used concurrently to help develop active immunity. In Canada, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends that pre-exposure rabies vaccination should be offered as a choice to workers at possible high risk of contacting rabid animals.
These workers include veterinarians, animal handlers, certain laboratory workers dealing with rabies, workers who have contact with bats or bat caves, forest rangers, conservation officers, wildlife biologists, and certain travellers at high risk. Workers with continuing high risk should have their blood tested every two years to determine if booster injections are required. Laboratory workers who could have accidental contact with the rabies virus without knowing it should be tested every six months. Those individuals with inadequate levels of antibodies should be given a booster dose of vaccine. People who have had contact with the rabies virus require both the rabies immune globulin (RabIg) and the rabies vaccine (HDCV or PCECV) as soon as possible. Only a single dose of rabies immune globulin is necessary. In previously vaccinated people, only two doses of the vaccine are required after a biting incident, one immediately and another three days later. The animal appeared to have rabies. The animal may possibly have had rabies. The animal was wild, from a region where rabies is known to be a problem. The animal was a dog or cat that escaped after the contact without being tested.
Immunization is usually recommended if the animal makes contact by biting, or if the animal's saliva, body fluid or tissue makes contact with a rash, scratch, open wound, eyes, nose, or mouth. Wild animals or unwanted dogs or cats suspected of having rabies are humanely killed without delay. Their heads are submitted for laboratory examination. Vaccination may be discontinued if tests of animals killed at the time of attack are negative. Medical professionals generally do not recommend immunization if the animal had no contact with a person's skin or mucous membranes. Nor is immunization recommended if workers have had only casual contact with the animal such as petting, with no possible contamination of broken skin or mucous membranes. Healthy dogs or cats involved in biting incidents are held in confinement for at least 10-14 days, according to provincial regulations. If rabies does not develop in that time, no immunization is required for the injured worker. If signs of rabies do develop, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency should be notified, the animal humanely killed and analyzed; and the person's immunization started without delay.
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