why do scientists want to study stem cells

I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and why are they important? have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions.


Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans:
and non-embryonic. The functions and characteristics of these cells will be explained in this document. Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 30 years ago, in 1981. The detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These cells are called. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures. When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be "reprogrammed" genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This new type of stem cell, called, will be discussed in a later section of this document. Stem cells are important for living organisms for many reasons. In the 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a, the inner cells give rise to the entire body of the organism, including all of the many specialized cell types and organs such as the heart, lungs, skin, sperm, eggs and other tissues.


In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease. Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer new potentials for treating diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. However, much work remains to be done in the laboratory and the clinic to understand how to use these cells for to treat disease, which is also referred to as. Laboratory studies of stem cells enable scientists to learn about the cellsв essential properties and what makes them different from specialized cell types. Scientists are already using stem cells in the laboratory to screen new drugs and to develop model systems to study normal growth and identify the causes of birth defects. Research on continues to advance knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms.


Stem cell research is one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary biology, but, as with many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries. I. Introduction sots-intro { width: 365px; float: left; margin: 10px 10px 0px 8px; text-align: left; border: 5px solid #DA87C2; background: #FFF; color: #000; padding: 10px; font-weight: bold; } Stem cells can do two things: First, they can divide and specialize into other kinds of cells. Embryonic stem cells, especially, have the ability, or potential, to become any cell type. Stem cells can also divide indefinitely without specializing; resulting "daughter cells" have the same potential as the parent cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells to grow without specializing is called self-renewal. Embryonic stem cells grow by self-renewal very efficiently, but most adult stem cells don't self renew outside of the body. If scientists could understand why, and give adult stem cells what they need to self renew, then they might be able to use adult stem cells for more transplantation therapies.

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